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Food and Bevarage ( Prodction)

Dennis Wambua
1 Student enrolled
  • Description
  • Curriculum





Specific objectives.

By the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to;

  1. Explain factors to consider when choosing location for a kitchen premises.
  2. Explain the layout of a given production area in different establishments.
  3. State the legislation governing the construction of a given catering premises.


Factors to consider when chosing a location for a kitchen premises.           


  • The size and extent of the menu and the market it serves.
  • Services i.e. gas, electricity and water.
  • Labour, skill level of staff.
  • Amount of capital expenditure, costs.
  • Types of equipment available.
  • Hygiene and food safety act
  • Design and décor
  • Multi-usage requirements.

1.The size and the extent of the menu it serves.


Before a kitchen is planned, the management must know its goals and objectives in relation to the market strategy. The menu will then determine the type of equipment you will require in order to produce the products that you know from the market research that the customer is going to buy. You also need to know the target numbers that you intend to service.



The designer must know where the services are ;ocated and how efficient use can be made of them.


3.Labor and skilled level


What kind of people does the company intend to employ? If semi-skilled labour is going to be used in preference to highly skilled labour, this will save on more technological equipment, more food will be used and this will have an effect  on the overall kitchen design.


4.Amount of capital expenditure

Most designs have to work with a detailed capital budget. Often it is always possible to design, then worry about the cost afterwards. Finance will often define the location of a premise.


5.Types of equipment available

The size, amount and size of the equipment will depend on the type of the menu being provided the equipments must be suitably sited.






  1. Design and décor

The trend towards provision of more attractive eating places, carried to its utmost perhaps by the chain and franchise operators. One trend has been that of bringing the kitchen area totally/partially into view.


7.Multi-usage requirements

Round the clock requirements have forced kitchen planners to consider design and location of the premises.






A well designed commercial kitchen is integral to efficient, safe and profitable food preparation.


Components of a commercial kitchen


This component of the kitchen receives all foods for proper storage and dispatches them for use appropriately.


b)Food preparation.

This component is split into a section for processing raw foods and a section for sorting into batches.


c)Meal cooking.

This component is where all cooking of food takes place and should be nearthe front of the kitchen next to the service area.



This section of the kitchen should be located near the kitchen entrance so that the servers can quickly drop off dirty dishes and near the kitchen areas so chefs can quickly find clean dishes.



This is where servers will pick up finished dishes to take to customers.


Factors to consider when planning the layout of a commercial kitchen

  • Capital availability.
  • Employee mobility
  • Kitchen style layout or configurations
  • Health laws and regulations
  • Sensory appeal
  • Size and extent of the menu
  • Ergonomics
  • Space availability
  • Equipment availability
  • Energy conservation and efficiency
  • Ventilation



Common layouts preferred by commercial kitchens are;

  1. Inside style layout.
  2. Zone style layout.
  3. Assembly line layout.



It is more of a footprint of your home kitchen. There are three types of kitchen layouts;

  • U-shaped
  • L – shaped
  • Gallery kitchens
  • Single wall
  • Gallery ( walk through )
  • G – shaped




Food preparation rooms should be planned to allow a ‘work flow’ whereby food is processed through the premises from the point of delivery to the point of sale or service with minimum obstruction.


The various processes should be separated as far as possible and food intended for sale should not cross paths with waste food or refuse.


Staff time is valuable and and a design that reduces wasteful journeys is both efficient and cost effective.


The overall sequence of receiving,storing,preparing,holding,serving and clearing is achieved by:-


a)Minimum movement.

b)Minimum back-tracking.

c)Maximum use of space.

d)Maximum use of equipment with minimum expenditure of time and effort.






Design and construction of the kitchen must comply with the Hygiene and Food safety Act 1990/91. The basic layout and construction should enable adequate space  to be provided in all food handling and associated areas  for equipment as well as working practices and frequent cleaning to be carried out.



Approximately 4.2m2 is required per person,too little space can cause staff to work in close proximity to burners,steamers,cutting blades,mixers etc thus causing accidents.


A space of 1.37 m from the equipment is desirable and aisles must be of adequate size to enable staff to move safely.The working area must be suitably lit and ventilated with extractor fans to remove heat,fumes and smells.





Lighting is a very important component of the overall dinning room design.The amount of light required is dictated by the area and the activity that occurs there.


General lighting is designed to perform and function for booth day and night time activity.it must achieve a perfect balance.




There are three basic types of ventilation system.They include:-


1.Extract:-This system only removes air thereby creating a negative pressure in the space.Outside air will come into the space wherever it can usually through door ways,window areas or specifically prepared openings.


2.Inlet:-This system is concerned only with the supply of outside air but it is not a suitable system for a catering kitchen but may prove useful in areas such as storage rooms.


3.Combined:-This balances the flow of air into and out of the space.


All these systems use mechanical means of moving air ie.electrically driven fans.

The ideal system,although more expensive is the combined system where the extract and supply of air can be controlled.






















Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. classify kitchen equipment
  2. outline factors to consider when selecting kitchen equipment
  3. Explain the use, care and maintenance of kitchen equipment.


  • Classification of kitchen equipment;


  • Small equipment and utensils:- pots, pans, bowls, saucepans, knives, strainers, whisks, trays, measuring equipment and miscellaneous items.


  • Large equipment; refrigerators, cookers, deep fat- fryers , brat pans, micro- wave oven, boiling pans, bain-marie, grills and salamanders griddle.


  • Mechanical equipment; blenders, mixers, food slicers, mincers, potato peelers, pastry rollers, food processors, chipper, juicers, electric masher, dish washers.


  • A good-quality chef’s knife that feels good in the hand and is properly weighted makes cooking much more enjoyable because slicing and chopping are easier tasks. A paring knife is essential for smaller tasks such as peeling fruit and vegetables. Other useful knives include a serrated bread knife, carving knife and filleting knife. Wood or plastic cutting boards protect countertops from damage and help keep knives in top condition.

There are five basic types of kitchen knives:

  • Chef’s Knife
    A chef’s knife is usually the largest knife in the kitchen, with a wide blade that is 8″ to 10″ long. Choose a knife that feels good and balanced in your hand. The knife should have a full tang. This means that the blade should go all the way through the handle for the best wear and stability.
  • Paring Knife
    Paring knives are generally 2-1/2-4″ in length. The most often used knife in the kitchen. It is ideal for peeling and coring fruits and vegetables, cutting small objects, slicing, and other hand tasks.
  • Utility Knives
    Utility knives are longer than paring knives but smaller than chef’s knives, usually around 5-8″ long. They are also called sandwich knives because they are just the right side for slicing meats and cheeses. I have several utility knives in my kitchen as ‘extra’ knives.
  • Boning Knife
    This type of knife has a more flexible blade to curve around meat and bone. Generally 4-5″ long.
  • Bread Knife
    Bread knives are usually serrated. Most experts recommend a serrated knife that has pointed serrations instead of wavy serrations for better control and longer knife life. I have two bread knives in my kitchen – a long 10″ knife that’s great for cutting whole loaves, and a 6″ knife perfect for cutting sandwich buns. You must use a sawing motion when using a serrated knife.


Sharpening Knives

A knife that is not sharp is dangerous. It can slip off the food you’re cutting and easily cut your fingers instead. Steel should be part of your knife collection. This long, round object sharpens knives by straightening out the edge. Take a look at using a steel to see how to correctly sharpen your knives on steel. Hold the knife in your dominant hand and the steel in the other, with the steel point pressed into a solid waist-high surface. Hold the knife base at the top of the steel at a 20 degree angle. Slowly draw the knife down the length of the steel, pulling the knife back so the entire blade, from base to tip, moves against the steel, as if you were slicing off pieces of the steel. Repeat on the other side. Do this five or six time, then rinse the knife off and dry immediately. Make sure you sharpen each side the same number of times to retain the knife’s balance.

Miscellaneous Tools

  • Most of the small items in a kitchen fall into the category of miscellaneous tools. Cooking utensils such as spatulas, tongs, wooden spoons and whisks are essential for mixing and stirring. A can opener, vegetable peeler, measuring cups and measuring spoons help in preparing foods properly and quickly. A colander will help drain pasta or rice and a set of mixing bowls provide a place to put food while preparing it.


  • swivel-bladed vegetable peeler
  • grater with various sized holes
  • rolling pin
  • can opener
  • kitchen timer
  • kitchen shears
  • corkscrew


  • Pots and pans are essential kitchen equipment for cooking food. Most people will want at least two pots, a smaller 2-quart saucepan for sauces and a larger 4-quart pot for pasta and soups. Two pans are also advisable, as a smaller 8- to 10-inch nonstick pan is perfect for frying an egg or two for breakfast and a larger 12-inch pan can be used for stir-frying vegetables or searing meat.

Measuring Cups and Spoons

  • Various sizes, in metal and plastic
  • Get at least two sets of each, so you’re not continually washing them as you cook
  • glass measuring cups with spout, for liquids




  • slotted spoon
  • wooden spoons
  • sturdy metal spoons
  • Soup ladle

Mixing Utensils

  • hand held electric mixer
  • Wire whisks in different sizes
  • eggbeater


Sieves and Colanders

  • nested varying size sieves, in stainless steel (work as flour sifters too)
  • steel or plastic colander

Pots and Pans

  • 1, 2, 4, and 8-quart saucepans with covers
  • 12″ skillet with covers
  • 6 or 8″ nonstick skillet
  • roasting pan
  • two 9″ round cake pans
  • 9″ square cake pan
  • 9″x13″ baking pan
  • 9″x5″ loaf pan
  • 9″ pie pan
  • 12 cup muffin tin
  • cooling racks
  • two cookie sheets

Bake ware

  • Most items prepared in an oven will need to rest in or on some form of bake ware. Essential items include a cookie sheet, cake pan and casserole dish. A pizza stone is another useful piece of equipment for getting a crispy crust on a homemade or frozen pizza.


  • Although appliances are not essential, they make many steps in the cooking process faster. A food processor will chop and slice vegetables or make purees for soups or side dishes. An electric mixer will help mix cookie dough, make cake batter or beat eggs. A toaster oven will not only make toast but provide a low-energy alternative to a traditional oven for smaller tasks such as broiling fish or baking a few fresh cookies.

 Factors to consider when selecting kitchen equipment


  • Type of fuel-type of fuel should be easily available and sufficient.
  • Weight-the type of floor should be able to support the weight of the equipment.
  • Versatility-the equipment in question should be able to perform more than one task inorder to justify the expense.
  • Number to be catered for-the equipment should be able to produce the required number of portions at one given time and efficiently to save on time and cost.ie Should have the correct capacity.
  • Cost-the equipments should not be very expensive and the spare parts should be easily obtainable.
  • Space available should also be considered for the equipment fitting.
  • Drainage-where possible is the drainage system appropriate for the equipment.
  • Water supply-is it available?
  • Ease of handling-the equipments should be easy for staff to handle,control and use properly
  • Maintenance-it should be easy for staff to clean and maintain.
  • Noise level-the equipments should have an acceptable noise level
  • Construction-they should be well made, safe, hygienic and energy efficient.
  • Safety-they should be safe to use and not pose a threat to the users.
  • Manufacturers reputability-should be from a reputable manufacturer incase of any disfunctions.


Task 3: The use, care and maintenance of kitchen equipment

Trainees should explain and practice the use care and maintenance of different kitchen equipment in relation to type.


  1. Classify kitchen equipment and give examples in each case.
  2. State factors to consider when choosing kitchen equipment.
  3. Clean various kitchen equipment properly







Specific objectives

  1. Explain the staff structure of a given catering outlet in different sectors of the industry.
  2. Describe a characteristic of a given kitchen personnel.

Factors that determine the the structure and size of the kitchen brigade.

  • The size of the establishment
  • The type of establishment
  • Organization of the kitchen establishment
  • Equipment and tools available
  • Foods offered on the menu
  • Skills of the workforce in the kitchen
  • Hours of operation, customer needs and expectations.


The three most common kitchen brigade sizes include the following;



                                         SMALL KITCHEN BRIGADE


                                                 HEAD COOK
                                          COMMIS ( TRAINEE/APPRENTICE




                                                     MEDIUM KITCHEN BRIDGADE


                                                         CHEF DE PARTIE



Commercial kitchens range from tiny, mom-and-pop restaurants to the high-volume production environments of convention centers and institutions. Yet whatever the kitchen’s sizes, the individual tasks involved in producing meals are consistent and so are the duties and responsibilities of the kitchen staff. There is a formal, traditional staffing structure, but it’s no longer common in modern kitchens.

The Classical Brigade

Legendary chef Auguste Escoffier laid out the classical brigade structure in the late 19th century. At the top is the executive chef, who determines the overall direction and focus of the kitchen. Next are one or more sous-chefs, responsible for the day-to-day operation of the kitchen. A range of chefs de partie, or station cooks, are responsible for specific types of food. These included the saucier for sauces, the poissonier for fish dishes, the potager for soups and the garde-manger for turning leftovers into new dishes. The patisserie, or pastry chef, prepared desserts and baked goods. A variety of apprentices and helpers rounded out the standard kitchen’s staff.


Modern kitchens show less specialization, but the fundamental roles are the same. At the top is the executive chef, who is primarily a manger. If the chef owns multiple restaurants, each restaurant will typically have its own chef de cuisine managing the kitchen under the executive chef’s direction. Large operations might have an executive sous-chef to ease the executive chef’s workload. Under these top managers, are the sous-chefs. A large hotel might have several sous-chefs, or a small restaurant might have only a lead cook, but the role is the same as in a classical brigade. In many establishments the pastry chef runs a semi-autonomous kitchen in collaboration with the executive chef.

Line Cooks

In modern restaurant kitchens the roles of individual cooks aren’t as clearly defined, and except in large hotels or institutions there aren’t as many single-purpose work stations. Most cooking tasks are performed by line cooks, with more skilled and experienced cooks handling the most demanding jobs. Larger kitchens often designate a first cook or lead cook for that role, and first cooks will often supervise the kitchen in the sous-chef’s absence. Less-experienced cooks begin by assisting at high-volume stations within the kitchen, or working independently in a less-demanding, lower-volume station.

Prep Cooks, Apprentices and Others

Large kitchens, and some smaller ones, employ prep chefs to perform basic duties such as peeling, cutting and portioning raw ingredients, or making stock and sauces. This frees up more experienced cooks for more skilled labor. Prep cooks are sometimes called cooks’ assistants, and help by continuously stocking a busy station during service. Apprentices are cooks in formal training programs, learning through a combination of on-the-job and classroom instruction. They’re typically given opportunity to learn all positions in the kitchen, beginning with prep work and then moving onto the line. The dishwasher also plays a role in the kitchen, speeding needed utensils back into service and occasionally helping out with food preparation.





 Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. explain personal hygiene requirements
  2. explain food hygiene requirements
  3. discuss the environmental hygiene requirement in a work place
  4. explain the HACCP concept
  5. identify types of waste and its disposal
  6. explain legislation in food hygiene and safety








 Good grooming

  • Bathe regularly
  • Clean hands regularly
  • Short fingernails and without varnish
  • Hair clean and covered
  • Avoid touching nose, mouth and ears during food preparation.
  • Clean teeth and regular visit to the dentist
  • Clean feet with low closed shoes
  • Cover all cuts burns and sores with a water proof dressing. Kitchen staff with septic wounds and boils should not handle food.
  • Use cosmetics in moderation but ideally should be discouraged.
  • No jewellery should be worn in the kitchen
  • No smoking tasting, of food using fingers or other activities which bring hands and mouth directly in contact with food.
  • No spitting
  • Illness sickness diarrhea sore throat fever or skin infections should be reported to management
  • Clean appropriate kitchen uniform

-double breast chefs jacket

-chefs cap

-apron long enough to protect the legs

-checked cotton trousers /skirts

-neck tie



  • Direct handling of food should be avoided particularly cooked food
  • Food should be covered to prevent contamination
  • Equipment and utensils should be clean
  • Cook food thoroughly
  • Hot food should be eaten while still hot
  • If the food is to be eaten cold cool rapidly and refrigerate within 90 minutes. Cold food should be kept below 50 c in a refrigerator.
  • Cooked food should not be stored too long.
  • Take particular care in thorough reheating of made up dishes
  • Have boards and knives colored for particular foods (color coding)
  • Wash raw fruit and vegetables thoroughly
  • Pay particular attention when handling raw poultry meat and fish
  • Ensure food is obtained from reliable sources.
  • All equipment and utensils should be kept clean
  • Work surfaces should be washed and disinfected thoroughly:
  • Floor should be kept clean and dry
  •  Kitchen cloths should be washed with a bactericide or by boiling
  • Bins kept indoors should be emptied cleaned with detergent and dried, disinfecting is recommended regularly and bins should be lined before use.



HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) enables evaluation of the operation.

It locates possible points of contamination, determines the severity of the hazard and takes preventive measures to protect against food borne illness outbreak


The HACCP is an assessment of all the hazards associated with each step of a catering organization. Staff needs to know the hazard, the degree of risk involved and those they apply the controls which have been introduced to reduce and eliminate the risk.



  • Organic
  • Derived from animal and plants foods which includes
  • Vegetable and meat trimmings
  • Bones
  • Inedible plant parts
  • Food leftovers
  • Old cooking oils
  • From flower beds and hedges


  • Inorganic (solid waters) which include:-
  • Packaging materials, cans both plastic and metals
  • Glass which include crockery
  • Glass bottles mostly from the bar and kitchen
  • Office wastes which include papers cardboards, cartridges
  • Garage wastes which include old engine oils
  • Linen wastes, towels and rags


  • Liquid wastes
  • This include grey water from the kitchen and cooking oils



  • Burying
  • It is suitable for organic wastes which cannot (degrade) once in the soil thus add nutrients to the soils.
  • It is not suitable for solid wastes
  • It is not suitable where large amount of wastes are produced
  • It is ideal for picnic where amount of wastes are produced
  • Burning
  • Mainly used for flammable waste like paper
  • Suitable for small amount of wasted as this method may pollute the air
  • Draining into main sewer
  • Suitable for disposing liquid wastes like grey water from dish washing

Water from the kitchen is normally channelled to the main sewer.

  • Recycling
  • This is one of the best way of disposing wastes
  • Materials are separated and taken for recycling.

Wastes that can be recycled include:-

  • Glass
  • Metals
  • Plastic cans and heavy duty plastic sheets and paper
  • Rubber
  • Paper (made from wood)
  • Cooking oil into bio diesel
  • Compositing
  • Organic matter is composted to produce organic manure to grow organic foods and for adding nutrients to flower beds


  • Feeding animals

Leftover foods are used to feed pigs, cows, dogs and other domestic animals.

  • Compactors
  • Compacting reduces the wastes sizes (bulkiness)
  • The compacted wastes are then discarded into dumping sites.
  • Disposal into sea/rivers
  • This is a bad method of waste disposal because it pollutes the river environments
  • However water from sewage lagoons is usually safe to dispose into the rivers once they are certified clean.




The preparation and sale of food is controlled by the food hygiene regulation (general) 1970. The regulations are applicable to any staff involved in handling food and cleaners of equipment in food rooms. The responsibility for implementing this regulation is carried by environmental health officers who regularly visit food businesses to monitor standards and offer advice. Failure to comply with the regulations may lead to fines or imprisonment but legal action is used only if advice has persistently been ignored.

The general food hygiene regulations (1970) include:





  • Premises should be clean, well lit, suitably ventilated, sanitary conveniences provided for
  • Food production areas should not be used for sleeping
  • Adequate provision should be made for refuse



The following must be provided for:

  • First aid materials
  • Clean wholesome water
  • Accommodation for outdoor clothes and shoes
  • Separate facilities for washing hands, raw food and equipment


Equipment should be:

  • Clean
  • Kept in good repair
  • Constructed of non absorbent materials


Food handlers:

  • Must not smoke
  • Must cover abrasions with water proof dressings
  • Wear clean, washable over-clothing
  • Inform management of diarrhea, vomiting, septic cuts, boils, throat/nose infections


Food handling:

  • Food handlers must protect food from risk of contamination:
  • Food should not be placed where it can be contaminated
  • Food kept for animals must be kept away from other food
  • Food for sale must be covered or screened


Catering practice

  • High-risk foods for immediate consumption should be kept at above 630C or below 100C; e.g. gravy, meat, poultry, cream, milk, fish.



  1. Visit a nearby river and identify waste material going into the river
  2. Discuss methods of waste disposal used in establishments
  3. Explain how the HACCP concept is used in the kitchen






The key to preventing kitchen accidents are careful kitchen management and safe work habits.

Falls, electrical shock, cuts, burns and poisoning are all kitchen hazards.

Stay Calm and never hesitate to call for help.

General Safety Guidelines

  • Do not let hair, jewelry, sleeves dangle – catch fire or get tangled in appliances.
  • Keep your mind on what you’re doing.
  • Prevent clutter – Clean up as you go and put things away.
  • Close drawers and doors.
  • Use the right tool for the job.
  • Store heavy or bulky items on low shelves.


Keep floors clean and free of clutter. Wipe up spills, spatters and peelings.

Eliminate other hazards, slippery throw rugs and damaged or worn flooring. Tie shoes, avoid long clothes, floppy slippers.

Use a firm stepstool or ladder instead of a chair. Use a bib-skid backing on rugs.

First aid for falls

Don’t move a person with broken bones unless necessary. Call medical help if head aches, dizziness, vomiting, or speech

Impairment results from head injury.

Mild bruises/sprains need ice bag or cold water/cloths and elevation.


Keep knives sharp and use properly.

Use a drawer divider or knife rack for sharp cutting tools.

Don’t try to catch a falling knife.

Don’t soak knives in sink or dishpan or water.

Sweep up broken glass from the floor using broom and dustpan.

Use wet paper towel instead of bare fingers.

First aid for cuts

Stop severe bleeding with the pressure of a thick cloth; get medical


Minor cuts – wash with soap and water, blot dry and bandage.

Consumer product safety commission estimates over 137,000 people receive hospital treatment for injuries from kitchen knives each year.

Electrical Safety:

Appliances save both time and work in the kitchen. But, they are a source of shock, burns and other injuries.

Read owner’s manual.

Water and electricity don’t mix – cords

Avoid damage to electrical cords – tugging on cord, stapling, or burn them.

Use outlets properly – overloading polarized plugs 9one blade wider than


Use care with any plugged in appliance. Watch for problems.

First aid for electrical shock

Don’t touch person connected to electricity.

Turn off power, pull plug or pull person away with cloth loop. Administer CPR if qualified and call medical help.

Hazardous Chemicals:

Cause burns, breathing difficulties and poisoning. Read labels.

Never transfer hazardous products to another container.

Never mix different chemical products.

Never mix compounds such as bleach/ammonia.

Use charcoal/hibachi outside ONLY – gives off carbon monoxide. Follow antidote directions in well ventilated area if poisoning occurs.

First aid for Poisons

Call medical help and if possible use antidote on label. If fumes, get person to well ventilated area.

Flush eyes with water if irritated.


Every kitchen should have a fire extinguisher.

Turn off heat, cover pan or pour salt or baking soda on flames.

Never use water – grease will spatter and burn.

Never attempt to carry a pan with burning contents – Fire Dept. – go outside.

In case of fire:

Turn off appliance.

Use baking soda instead of water. Use a fire extinguisher.

If clothing catches on fire, drop to the ground and roll. STOP.


Crawl on the ground to get out of smoke filled room.

First aid for Burns

Cool it with cold water/prolonged ice will freeze tissue.

Avoid ointments, grease and oil (contributes to the cooking process of the burn).


Heimlich maneuver

CPR – If person has stopped breathing and heartbeat have stopped.

First aid for Choking

If person can speak, cough or breathe, do nothing.

Do the Heimlich Maneuver procedure.






6.0 Important Fuels used in Hotel Kitchens



LPG or liquefied petroleum gas is the generic name for commercial propane and butane composed fuel used in the kitchen to fuel gas burners. This gas is supplied in industrial cylinders or in bulk storage tanks at the hotel premises. It is supplied to the hotel kitchen through pipelines.

The LPG cylinders are stored in a separate place, usually known as. ‘Gas bank’ and are usually operated by a department in the hotel called ‘kitchen stewarding’. Amount of gas cylinders used in the gas bank depends on the types of operations they are used for.

A large hotel may have more than 100 cylinders. Half of these would be installed to supply gas whereas half would always be a backup. A certain gas pressure is maintained by the stewarding department as certain ranges require high pressure for cooking. LPG is liquefied under pressure and converts into gas when the pressure is released.


It is almost smokeless and easy to handle. LPG should be handled with utmost care as being a transparent gas its leakage is not easily detectable and it is also highly combustible.

There are certain government regulations regarding the usage of LPG. For example, LPG cannot be used in basement kitchens or below the sea level and hence, in those kinds of conditions one has to rely on electricity or steam- operated equipment.


It is one of the most essential fuels used in the hotel kitchen and is known for its efficiency. It is used as a fuel for cooking ranges, ovens, and salamanders. Some tandoors used in Indian cooking are also fired by LPG.


Compressed natural gas is slowly gaining popularity for its fuel efficiency and environment-friendly properties.



It is used in eco-friendly hotels as fuel in many types of equipment such as ovens, gas ranges, etc.


Though it is a very crude form of fuel to be used in a modern kitchen, it is still very popular. The smoky flavour which the charcoal imparts is much desired. Coal should always be stored away from food area, ideally in a cool, dark room away from any moisture. Usually separate areas are built near the receiving area for coal storage as coal is combustible and messy.



Coal is used in a hotel kitchen to light tandoor and grills for barbecue. The coal used in the hotels is wood charcoal only.


One would have come across wood-fired pizza ovens in the modern restaurants today. Gaining popularity of pizzas has led to the origin of this oven which lends an aesthetic appearance to the restaurant, where chefs prepare pizzas in front of the guests. Though it is also operated by LPG, few logs of wood are placed inside to impart a smoky flavour to the pizzas.



It is used as a fuel for wood-fired pizza ovens. The pizza ovens have LPG fire but wood is also kept inside to impart a smoky flavour to the food.


Electricity is also used as fuel to operate many types of equipment. Care should be taken while ordering such equipment as many countries operate on certain volts. In India equipment works on 220 volts, whereas in the USA equipment works on 110 volts. So care should be taken while importing equipment.

Some of the heavy duty equipment use three-phase electric current and some use only single phase. So it is important that the instructions are read before installing the new machinery.


Electricity is generally used to operate most of the equipment in the hotel kitchen. It is popular in the hotel kitchens because it is easy to control electrical equipment.

6. Steam:

Most of the hotels produce steam, which is used to cook or operate equipment. Steam is supplied to the hotel kitchen through insulated pipes.


Steam is used in equipment such as dishwashers and steam jacket kettles.

 7. Solid Fuel/ Handy Fuel:

This fuel is made from petroleum jelly and comes in small tins. These are mostly used in F&B service areas.


This type of fuel is hardly used in hotel kitchens but is very commonly used in F&B service, where it is used in heating up food in the chafing dishes used commonly in banquets.

 8. Solar Energy:

The heat from the sun is used as a fuel. This is not a very commonly used fuel in the kitchens, but many eco- friendly hotels have solar cookers that are used in cooking.


Solar cookers utilize solar energy to cook food.


Our 3 categories of water

Natural mineral water, spring water, or prepared water, what’s the difference?


These three different types of plain water are defined by their intrinsic characteristics: origin, consistency, composition, protection and treatment.


The Codex Alimentarius defines these categories for packaged water suitable for human consumption.


1 / Types of water: what is natural mineral water?

Natural mineral water is defined as water that is:
obtained directly from underground sources protected from pollution risks
characterised by its content of certain mineral salts and their relative proportions
guarantees constancy of its composition and the stability of its flow collected under conditions which guarantee the original microbiological purity and chemical composition
packaged close to the point of emergence of the source
cannot be subjected to any treatment (except for limited ones such as carbonation, iron or manganese removal)
may claim medicinal effects

Natural mineral water accounts for the majority of our bottled water sales in Europe, where consumers demand “pure”, “untouched” water.

Natural mineral water also constitutes a significant share of our local brands in emerging markets.


2/ Types of water: Spring water, a water defined by origin

Waters defined by origin – often called “spring water” – are water that:
come from a specific underground (or sometimes surface) source
have not passed through a community water system
are protected within set vulnerability perimeters to avoid pollution and contamination
are consistently fit for human consumption at the source and kept in that state until bottled
are not subject to any modification or treatment other than those permitted by this standard

Water defined by origin is the leading product type for our United States local brands, as well as the majority of our local brands outside Europe.


3/ Types of water : what is prepared water ?

Prepared waters may:
originate from any type of water supply (including municipal water)
be subjected to any treatment that modifies the original water in order to comply with chemical, microbiological and radiological safety requirements for pre-packaged water

Prepared water is the standard for emerging countries where purity of water means above all, safety. Depending on local legislation, the label would identify the water as “purified water” or “drinking water”.

Related on Nestlé Waters :
Daily water requirement
Percentage of water in human body
Water life cycle





A foodservice director has many options for food production and service.  Most foodservice directors inherit a foodservice system, but may make modifications to that system or select and build a new system.  For example, in today’s environment it is very difficult to find adequate labor, which is forcing school foodservice directors to consider alternatives in food production.  Also, there is a great concern about food safety, including Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) program implementation, and quality control that might be improved in centralized food production.  If a change is to be made in the system, it is important to know what alternatives are available.

In this chapter, information will be presented about:

  • Unique characteristics of foodservice
  • Flow of food
  • Form of food purchased
  • Types of foodservice systems ⇒ Conventional ⇒ Centralized (Commissary) ⇒ Ready-Prepared ⇒ Assembly-Serve


  • Advantages and disadvantages of each type of foodservice system


Unique Characteristics of Foodservice 

There are some characteristics of foodservice that make it unique compared to production of other products.  This uniqueness influences decisions that are made about production and service.  Some of these characteristics include:

Demand for food occurs at peak times, around breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals.  Between these peak demand times, there are valleys or slow times.  Demand for food may vary depending on time of year and competitive events, and production must be modified accordingly.


Foodservice Systems 

A Guide to Centralized Foodservice Systems

Food production and service are labor intensive.  Both skilled and unskilled labor is needed.  Food is perishable, requiring it to be handled properly before, during, and after preparation.  Menus change on a daily basis, thus, production changes daily.

These characteristics create challenges in scheduling employees and production, difficulty in staffing, and high labor and food costs.  Conventional foodservice systems exhibit these characteristics.  Foodservice directors look for ways to reduce or eliminate the impact of these characteristics—and alternative foodservice systems offer solutions.  For example, commissary foodservice systems centralize the production process and allow for economies of scale, reducing the costs of food production.  Ready-prepared foodservice systems separate production and service in that food is prepared and stored  either frozen or chilled for later rethermalization and service.  This removes the peaks and valleys of production that occur when production is planned around service.  Thus, this is a more cost-effective foodservice system than the conventional system.  Foodservice systems may be combined to meet the unique needs of a district school foodservice operation.

Flow of Food  

It is important to understand the flow of food through a foodservice system in order to determine the system that will best meet your needs and to develop an effective HACCP program.  Food flows through ten possible processes:






Menu Planning






Foodservice Systems

A Guide to Centralized Foodservice Systems


As we talk more about the four types of foodservice systems, you will find that all of these processes do not apply to all of the systems.  Also, when food production is centralized, a transporting process needs to be added.  With a centralized foodservice system, there will be different processes (and critical control points) for the central food production facility and the receiving kitchens (satellites).  In the chapter on food safety, there will be a more in-depth discussion about the critical controls that need to be in place during each process in the food flow.

Form of Food Purchased

Another concept that is important to the understanding of foodservice systems is the form in which the food is purchased.  Following is a diagram of the food processing continuum:

This diagram depicts the continuum of food processing that might be done prior to purchasing.  For example, if food were purchased at the “none” end of the continuum, the ingredients for a product would be purchased.  If food were purchased at the complete end, the food product would be ready to heat or serve (perhaps requiring no preparation or only rethermalization).

Here is an example that you might find in school foodservice.  Let’s take Italian bread.  We could make many different decisions about where on the food processing continuum to purchase Italian bread.  We could purchase all of the ingredients (yeast, flour, sugar, shortening, and salt) and make our own bread from scratch.  In this case, the food is purchased with no prior processing (none end of the food processing continuum).  We could purchase frozen bread dough, proof it, and bake it.  In this case, we are purchasing items somewhere in the mid-range of the food processing continuum.  Purchasing from the complete end of the continuum, we could purchase Italian bread already baked and all we do is serve.  There are many examples in school foodservice of similar choices for how much processing will be done in the foodservice operation and how much will be done prior to purchasing the product.


Centralized Foodservice Systems


Purchasing decisions differ depending on the type of foodservice system that is in place.  For example, with centralized food production, food is more likely to be purchased from the left end of the continuum—with little or no processing.  The processing or food preparation will be done in the central kitchen.  This often represents a substantial food cost savings—one of the goals for centralized production.  Food costs and labor costs usually are inversely related—as one goes up the other one goes down.  If the quantities of food produced are very high, as in the case of a large central kitchen, productivity (usually measured as meals per labor hour) will increase, making labor costs more reasonable.  In the assembly-serve foodservice system food is purchased at the  complete end of the food processing continuum.  That means food costs are high; but less labor is required, so labor costs decrease.  We will talk more about how food is purchased as the various types of foodservice systems are discussed.


Types of Foodservice Systems  

Four types of foodservice systems are described in the literature: conventional, commissary, ready-prepared, and assembly-serve (Unklesbay et al., 1977).  There are numerous examples of each of these systems in operation, both in school foodservice  and in other segments of the foodservice industry; and there are many variations of them, too!   A description of these systems will be useful if you are considering making changes in your operation.

Conventional Foodservice System 

The conventional foodservice system is most common, although that is changing due to the current operating environment.  In conventional foodservice systems, ingredients are assembled and food is produced onsite, held either heated or chilled, and served to customers.  For this foodservice system, food is purchased all along the food processing continuum.  For example, some items may be purchased from the none end and require full preparation.  Other items may be purchased with some processing, while others may be purchased fully prepared, only requiring portioning and service.

Foodservice Systems




Conventional foodservice systems are used extensively in schools, restaurants, colleges and universities, and cafeterias.  Because of the current labor shortage, many of these conventional foodservice systems are using more and more food products from the complete end of the food processing continuum.


Advantages of Conventional Foodservice Systems 

There are several advantages to conventional foodservice systems:

  • High degree of perceived quality—this system makes people think of fresh and homemade food products, which people often equate with quality.
  • Flexibility in menu items—any menu item can be included on the menu because food is prepared and served soon after production.
  • Food is served soon after preparation—which means that most often freezing, chilling, or reheating typically does not impact the quality of the food product.
  • Traditional standardized recipes can be used—there is little need to modify recipes for chilling and reheating or extremely large production quantities. This means that there will be a large number of standardized quantity recipes available for use.


Disadvantages of Conventional Foodservice Systems  

There also are several disadvantages of conventional foodservice systems:

  • Labor intensive—with conventional systems, preparation is timed in relation to when the food will be served and eaten, thus, this system is more affected by the peaks and valleys of demand for food than any of the other systems.  More labor will need to be scheduled during peak times, making the cost of labor higher for this system than for any of the other foodservice systems.
  • Consistency—may be a problem if there are several conventional kitchens within a school system. There may be great variability in food quality, portion sizes, and food costs due to unskilled labor.  For example, are all cooks following the same standardized recipes, or are they being a little “creative”?  Do you have cooks with better cooking techniques in some operations?  Do all of the school foodservice managers have the same expectations of employees?  These kinds of inconsistencies can be a managerial headache!
  • Higher food costs—higher costs could result because there is less control of portion sizes, more deliveries (drops) are required by the vendors, and waste may be greater. There may be more total inventory since it is dispersed across many locations.
  • Food safety—there is less control over food safety in conventional foodservice systems compared to other foodservice systems. There are more decisions that must be made at critical control points, and those decisions are made by a great number of staff members at many locations.  It often is difficult to provide the supervision necessary to ensure consistency in how staff follows the standard operating procedures in multiple schools.


Centralized (Commissary) Foodservice System 

The commissary food service system (also known as central kitchen, central food production, or food factory) centralizes food production, and food is transported to satellites (receiving kitchens) where it is served to customers.  Food usually is purchased near the none end of the food processing continuum, and food preparation is done in the central kitchen, which results in lower food costs.  Labor costs also are lower because of the centralization of food preparation.  This food service system takes advantage of economies of scale, so it is most effective when mass food production is required.

One unique characteristic of the centralized foodservice system is that food is transported to external locations (satellites or receiving kitchens) for service.  Two factors will need to be considered about the food that is transported:  temperature and packaging.  Food can be transported either hot or cold, which impacts the delivery and the equipment needs in the receiving kitchens and in transportation.  The food can be sent to the receiving kitchens bulk or pre-plated, which impacts the equipment and labor needed at the receiving kitchen.  In addition, food production and delivery schedules must be coordinated.


Centralized (or commissary) foodservice systems are used in many types of foodservice operations.  Perhaps the application of centralized foodservice systems that is most easily visualized is in the airline industry.  There is a central production facility on or near the airport property where the food is prepared, pre-plated, sealed, and either chilled or frozen.  The pre-plated meals are placed in closed carts, and the trays with the cold items are assembled and placed in closed carts.  These carts are transported by truck to the airplane (satellite), where the food is placed in the galley.  The plates requiring rethermalization are placed in convection ovens by the caterer.  Once the airplane is airborne, the stewards assemble and distribute meals.  Assembly usually only consists of placing the passengers’ choice of hot entrée on the tray that contains all of the cold items.  Once the airplane lands at its destination, the caterer sends a truck to the airplane to get the used carts, trays, and dishes and returns them to the central food production facility for washing and sanitizing.  At the same time, the airplane is supplied with the meals required for the next flight.


Many restaurant corporations centralize food production, too.  Williams Sonoma, located in San Francisco, operates three Bay Cafes.  They produce the gourmet sandwiches, salads, soups, and baked goods at the original restaurant and transport them to the other two restaurants.

There are many examples of centralized foodservice systems in schools, and the numbers have expanded dramatically in the past 20 years.  Many of the large school districts located in urban areas use central production, including school districts in cities such as San Bernardino, California; Louisville, Kentucky; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis, Minnesota; St. Paul, Minnesota; Columbus, Ohio; Cleveland, Ohio; Dayton, Ohio; Portland, Oregon; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.  There are many more urban school districts using centralized foodservice systems.  They also are being used in medium-sized school districts, such as Elko, Nevada and Corvallis, Oregon.


Advantages of Centralized Foodservice Systems 

There are many advantages of centralized foodservice systems:

  • Lower food and supply costs—there can be significant cost savings from purchasing food and supplies in the very large quantities needed for one very large operation rather than for several smaller operations. Also, most food will be purchased near the none end of the food processing continuum, where food costs are lowest.
  • Purchasing Power—Large centralized facilities provide the opportunity to have a great deal of purchasing power. Supplier/vendor issues such as delivery schedules, order size, quality control, and return policies may be reduced or eliminated. Vendors often make deliveries to only one location, which also can save money in purchasing.  Purchases such as milk and bread probably still will be delivered to the individual schools.  Some operations may negotiate with a prime vendor to deliver some items directly to schools while still getting pricing based on overall purchases in the district.
  • Effective utilization of USDA commodities—central foodservice systems are able to utilize raw government commodities in a timely and creative manner. Flexibility in the recipe use of commodities exists.  This presents a cost savings, and similar products will not need to be purchased on the open market.
  • Ingredient control is improved—with a centralized foodservice system, there is greater control over ingredients, which decreases food costs. Often the central kitchen is planned with an ingredient room where food items are pre-weighed and measured prior to preparation.  This controls the quantities of ingredients used and ensures that standardized recipes are followed.
  • Inventory control—processes often are in place to ensure that food is issued in the appropriate quantities and there is good inventory turnover so that spoilage does not occur and food quality is maintained. This results in good fiscal management in that receiving sites maintain a “just-in-time” inventory.
  • Lower labor costs—labor costs (and total number of employees) can be reduced significantly using central food production. The high production quantities provide opportunities to increase productivity.  This is an especially important selling point in today’s environment where labor is scarce and expensive.
  • Flexibility in scheduling of food preparation—if food is transported cold, there is a great deal of flexibility in the scheduling of food production. This eliminates the peaks and valleys of demand for food and allows labor costs to be controlled.  Production can be scheduled at any time during the day or any day of the week since it is separated from service.
  • Mechanization of preparation—central kitchens utilize mechanized equipment to increase the efficiency of food preparation and minimize the lifting and heavy work on the part of employees.
  • Quality control—central food production provides the opportunity to have more quality control in the food served, including the consistency of products throughout many service sites. There are three aspects of food quality:
  • Microbiological quality—central production often lends itself to more control over the microbiological quality of food because of the number of controls that are in place at all points in the flow of food through the system. HACCP plans and procedures must be in place in centralized foodservice systems, and the size often allows for HACCP to be the main part of someone’s job.
  • Aesthetic quality—color, texture, and appearance all are aesthetic factors that are important in meals. These factors can be ensured through menu planning, purchasing, and preparation procedures in place in a centralized foodservice system.  There will be consistency among all schools in the district.
  • Nutritional quality—again, centralized menu planning, purchasing, and preparation all can ensure the nutritional quality of the meals in a centralized foodservice system because of the consistency and control that is possible.
  • Consistency—menus are planned, and food is purchased and prepared centrally, which allows for consistency in which food items that are being served at the schools throughout a district.
  • Better utilization of production facility—one central production facility allows for better space and equipment utilization compared to the use of multiple small kitchens throughout a district. Also, productivity might be increased (and facility utilization improved) by getting contracts to provide food/meals to other school districts or other agencies such as hospitals, HeadStart, Meals on Wheels, senior nutrition programs, and day care centers.  Catering for the school district would be another way to maximize facility utilization.
  • Flexibility in location—while schools are located in neighborhoods that sometimes have very high land costs, central production facilities can be located in less expensive areas of town. The primary consideration is that the location be accessible to highways for deliveries to and from the facility.  A central location within the school district may be advantageous, too.
  • Foodservice Systems

Fully-equipped kitchens are not needed in each school, saving equipment costs—thus, when        schools are aging and equipment needs to be replaced, a central food production facility eliminates the need for some equipment at the receiving kitchen.  This also is very advantageous for school districts in which  growth is rapid.  When building new schools, full production kitchens are not needed, which results in space savings and lower building costs.


Disadvantages of Centralized Foodservice Systems 

There are several possible disadvantages to centralized foodservice systems:

  • High initial capital investment for building and equipment—the initial cost of building and equipping a central production facility may be very high. Issues such as payback period and growth capabilities need to be considered since the investment may be advantageous over the long term.
  • More technically skilled employees are required—some of the equipment and processes in a central food production facility require more technical skills than are needed in a conventional foodservice system. For example, bakers may be needed to complete the more complex quantity baking that would be done.
  • Some jobs may be very monotonous—some of the jobs in a central food production facility are assembly line. These may be monotonous jobs that would not be appropriate for some employees.
  • Equipment malfunctions can be significant—if equipment fails, the impact is far greater for a central production facility than if a piece of equipment failed in a school kitchen. Efforts will be required to reduce the downtime of equipment.  Preventive maintenance will be extremely important.  Maintenance personnel dedicated to a facility is essential.
  • Transportation costs—in conventional foodservice systems transportation of prepared foods to receiving kitchens is not a cost, while in centralized foodservice systems it can be a significant cost. Costs will include:  trucks or vans, delivery equipment such as carts, gasoline, maintenance and repair, and insurance.  In addition, you will need truck drivers to deliver products.  Those drivers may need a Commercial Drivers License (depending on the truck size and local regulations) and in some areas may be members of a union such as Teamsters.  Union membership may have a big impact on the salary requirements of the truck drivers.
  • Perceived loss of quality—mass production often is perceived by customers to be less desirable than traditional food preparation.
  • Recipe modifications may be required—due to the large quantities produced. Also, if products are chilled or frozen, recipe modifications may be needed to maintain product quality.  Current standardized recipes will need to  be restandardized when converting to central food production.  This may require purchasing different products/ingredients.  Testing of products for both quality and taste will need to be an ongoing process.
  • Food safety problems can affect many customers—if there were a foodborne illness outbreak, many more customers would be affected. There will need to be very tight controls in place via a well-planned and implemented HACCP program to minimize the risks related to food safety.  Laboratory testing of products should be conducted on a continual basis.
  • Individuals preparing the food are not serving the food to customers— cooks will not get any feedback from students about the quality of food, and the customer seems less real. Foodservice directors in central kitchens often make efforts to connect the production staff with students.  For example, students are invited for kitchen tours to learn about how their food is prepared.  These tours provide some interactions with students for the central food production staff. Directors also may want to involve production staff in reviewing students’ evaluation of school foodservice.
  • Ready-Prepared Foodservice System

The ready-prepared foodservice system has been in use for many years.  In readyprepared foodservice systems, food is produced onsite, held chilled or frozen, reheated, and served to customers on site.  Food production can be scheduled at any time, since food is prepared and stored frozen or chilled for later rethermalization and service.  This system also allows multiple-day production to be done at one time.  For example, if chili is on the menu two times in the next 30 days, the total amount of chili can be made at one time, which reduces labor costs. For this foodservice system, food is purchased all along the food processing continuum.  For example, some items may be purchased from the none end, and require full preparation.  Soups, entrees, casseroles, and sauces would likely be fully prepared on site from ingredients purchased at the none end of the food processing continuum.  Other items may be purchased with some processing, while others may be purchased fully prepared, only requiring portioning and service.


Advantages of Ready-Prepared Foodservice Systems 

There are several advantages of ready-prepared foodservice systems.  Some of the main advantages include:

  • Flexibility in scheduling food preparation—if food is prepared and stored frozen or chilled for later use, there is a great deal of flexibility in the  scheduling of food production.  This eliminates the peaks and valleys of demand for food and allows labor costs to be controlled.  Production can be scheduled at any time during the day since it is separated from service.
  • Lower labor costs—large quantities of food can be prepared at one time and stored for later rethermalization and service; thus, food can be prepared for several meals at once. For example, spaghetti sauce could be prepared in large enough quantities to last a month rather than preparing it three times during that same time period.


Disadvantages of Ready-Prepared Foodservice Systems 

There are several possible disadvantages of ready-prepared foodservice systems:

  • Menu variety may be limited—some food items might not be suitable for the chilling or freezing process.
  • High initial capital investment for equipment—the initial cost of equipment for a ready-prepared system may be very high, but consideration of issues such as payback period, lower food cost, and lower labor costs usually will offset the initial costs in a short period of time.
  • Perceived loss of quality—mass production often is perceived to be less desirable than traditional food preparation.
  • Recipe modifications may be required—due to the large quantities produced. Also, if products are chilled or frozen, recipe modifications may be needed to maintain product quality.  Some standardized recipes will need to be restandardized when converting to a ready-prepared foodservice system.  This may require purchasing different products/ingredients.
  • Food safety problems can affect many customers—if there were to be a foodborne illness outbreak, many more customers would be affected. There will need to be very tight controls in place, via a well-planned and implemented HACCP program, to minimize the risks related to food safety.
  • Assembly-Serve Foodservice System

The assembly-serve foodservice system traditionally has been the least common, although that is changing due to the current operating environment.  In today’s environment labor is scarce and expensive.  Also, there are many choices in foods that  can be purchased that only require heating and serving.  In assembly-serve foodservice systems, food is purchased at the middle to complete end of the food processing continuum.  The purchased food is stored either frozen or chilled for later use.  It is then portioned, reheated, and served to customers.


Advantages of Assembly-Serve Foodservice Systems 

There are several advantages of assembly-serve foodservice systems.  The main advantages include:

  • Lower labor costs—with assembly-serve systems, food is purchased that is almost fully prepared, requiring little labor for production.
  • Limited equipment needs—because the food is almost fully prepared, for the most part all that will need to be done is rethermalization. Little equipment will be needed to rethermalize the food, portion it, and serve it to customers.  This results in lower initial capital expenses when building a new facility.


Disadvantages of Assembly-Serve Foodservice Systems 

There are several possible disadvantages of assembly-serve foodservice systems:

  • High food cost—since foods are purchased at the complete or nearly complete end of the food processing continuum, most of the labor in preparing the product is already done. This increases the food cost of the product compared to preparing the menu item from scratch (little or no end of the food processing continuum).
  • Menu variety may be limited—while the variety of prepared menu items has increased in recent years, there still is not the variety of items that can be prepared in a conventional, centralized/commissary, or ready-prepared foodservice system.
  • Availability of menu items—the continued availability of menu items may be a problem for cycle menus. Some foodservice directors have included items on their menus only to find that the product has been discontinued, reformulated, or no longer carried by the distributor from whom they purchase.
  • Perceived loss of quality—customers often view “homemade” products as having a higher quality than prepared items.


Combination Systems   

Often, foodservice operations in school districts have characteristics of more than one of the foodservice systems.  For example, school districts that have central production facilities may prepare some items in the central kitchen and some food items in the  receiving (satellite) kitchens.  This often is done to ensure the highest quality for a food item that is popular with students.

Another example of combination systems within a district is when a central kitchen is used to prepare meals for the elementary schools and conventional kitchens are used to prepare meals for middle and high schools.  This often is a more cost-effective method for serving large numbers of meals while still meeting the needs of the students.

In yet another example, some districts will centralize one function such as a bakery.  All baking will be done in a central site and the baked products distributed to schools throughout the district.  Other production would be done in the individual schools.

There are many ways that these systems can be combined to increase the efficiency of an operation and meet the unique needs of a school district.  The factors that will influence these decisions will be discussed in later chapters.




The english dictionary defines menu as the ‘bill of fare’ It is a list of dishes available in an outlet with an indication of their price. Menu can be alternatively defined as a systematic compilation of F & B arranged in a proper sequence to be served to a guest who is willing to pay for it. Hence, a menu is a took by which a catering establishments informs its customer about what food it has to offer.
The exact origin of menu is difficult to trace. It is clear however that in the days of monarch of ancient europe, a menu was presented at the table. Formal F&B service had its beginnings at banquets hosted by kings in honour of visiting dignitaries. The banquets had an extensive choice of food served in two main sections. The first section consisting of 25 to 45 dishes served to guest on the table. A single large table around which the guests would be seated. This course was called ‘entree’ as it was served before the entry of the guests. After these dishes were finished, they were cleared by the waiters and a next set of 20-40 dishes came to releve them. Hence, these dishes were called ‘relevée’. Some monarchs listed these dishes on a large board as a programme of food on offer. This was around 16th century is considered the earliest evidence of the origin of menu as we know it today.
As time went by the menu became smaller and more copies of menu were made available to the guests. The end of 1800’s and the early 1900’s saw Escoffier bring in havoc changes like recipe, standardization, menu compilation, portion control and discovery of some of today’s most popular dishes.
Menu is one the most important tools for an F&B organisation. Planning of menut depends on the following:
1. Class of restaurant.
2. Type of menu- fixed or individually priced.
3. Capablity of the kitchen staff.
4. The physical infrastructure for cooking and serving.
5. Language of the menu.
6. Type of clientele.
7. Seasonality and availability of raw materials.
8. Pricing of the menu.
Of there some of the points which require a detailed look include:
1. Type of clientele:
which depends on-
> religion and culture
> average spending power
> age group
> occupation
> nutritional and emotional requirement of clients.
2. Infrastructue and skills: these include-
> ability of chefs to consistently prepare menu items
> availabity of equipments to prepare dishes
> storage capacity to hold raw materials, semi-finished and finished foods
> ability of the waiting staff to serve properly.
3. Language of the menu: these include-
> menu should be written in a single language only
> language used should be simple
> spelling and sequence should be correct
> explanation of fish in one or two line under each fish should be provided
> in tablé dé hôte menu, the colour of dishes, cooking methods, garnishing and seasoning should not repeat.


Food science – menu planning


In the past few decades, people ate in restaurants occasionally to celebrate a special event such as an anniversary, a birthday, or an achievement. It was an outing to look forward to, and if one indulged, it did not matter as these outings were rare.

Today, the scenario is different. Eating out has become a way of life. Education and employment has taken many of us away from home, and the mother’s role now has an added responsibility of contributing to the family income. Modern day compulsions have made eating out a necessity. No longer does one find time for the traditional fare of yesteryears and depends on the caterer for the following:
1. Food for festivals and celebrations
2. Meals at the work place
3. Ready-to-eat meals picked up on the way home from work
4. Snacks and sweetmeats for daily consumption
5. Preserves, pickles, papads, etc.
6. All meals served in institutions such as hospitals, school/college cafeteria, mess or dining hall, and boarding schools.

The number of reported cases of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, heart attacks, etc. is on the rise and so is the number of meals consumed away from home. This is not surprising because if one indulges practically everyday, it is bound to result in ill-health because of malnutrition. The caterer’s role has become more significant as the responsibility now lies with the caterer for planning nutritionally adequate meals. Menu planning is the key to overcoming this problem.

Menu planning is defined as a simple process which involves application of the knowledge of food, nutrients, food habits, and likes and dislikes to plan wholesome and attractive meals.

The caterer who is responsible for providing meals has to decide on various aspects such as:
1. Menu
2. Serving size
3. Food cost
4. Suppliers and quantities to be purchased
5. Standardized recipes to be followed
6. Type of service
7. Meal timings
8. Clientele

The aim of menu planning is to:
1. Meet the nutritional needs of the individuals who will be consuming the food
2. Plan meals within the food cost
3. Simplify purchase, preparation, and storage of meals
4. Provide attractive, appetizing meals with no monotony
5. Save time and money
6. Minimize overhead expenditure, i.e., fuel, electricity, water, labour.

Menu planning is the most important aspect of planning and organization in the food industry. It is an advance plan of a dietary pattern over a given period of time.

Menus are of the following types:
Table d’hôte or fixed price menu It includes two or three courses at a set price. Each course may offer a choice of dishes.

A la carte On this menu, dishes are individually priced and the customers can compile their own menu which may be one, two or more courses.

Banquet menus These are special menus for banquets or functions.

Institutional menus Hospital menus, boarding school menus, and Industrial canteen menus.

Menu may be cyclic which means they are compiled to cover a specified period of time. The length of the cycle may vary and is decided upon by the management. A number of menus are set up and repeated. They are often modified to take into account variations, which may arise for a number of reasons.

Many factors influence the acceptability of a meal. Customers select what appeals most to them from a menu card based on individual likes and dislikes, budget, popularity of items, etc. However, while planning meals the following factors need to be considered.

Nutritional Adequacy
The most important consideration in menu planning is to ensure that the meal fulfils the nutrient needs of the individual consuming the meal. For example, if the meal is planned for an Indus trial worker, it must meet the RDAs for that age group. Foods from all basic food groups should be included in each meal so that the meal is balanced and nutritionally adequate. Nutrient needs may be modified for hospital diets (therapeutic diets).

Economic Considerations
The spending power of the clientele has to be kept in mind and meals have to be planned within the budget. Low cost nutritious substitutes should be included in the menu to keep the costs low. The food cost should be maintained, if the organization has to run profitably.

Food Service
Menus should be planned in relation to the type of food service, whether it is cafeteria, seated service, buffet, etc.

Equipment and Work Space
The menu should be planned keeping the available equipment and workspace in mind. Deep freezers, refrigerators, grinders, dough kneaders, deep fat fryers, boilers, etc. should be adequate.

Leftover Food
An effective manager should consider as to how leftovers could be rotated to obtain maximum profit. Adequate storage space and hygienic standards should be ensured to minimize the risk of contamination and spoilage of food.

Food Habits
Food habits of the customer is another important criteria which needs to be considered as food served has to be acceptable to the customer. Special attention should be paid when a particular type of community is catered to. Religious considerations should be known to the meal planner.

Some fruits and vegetables are seasonal. During the season the cost is reasonable and quality is better. Today, practically all fruits and vegetables are available throughout the year because of advanced preservation technology. However, seasonal fruits and vegetables should be given preference. Regional availability influences menu planning. For example, fish and sea food is fresh and cheaper in coastal areas.

Meal Frequency and Pattern
The meal timings and number of meals consumed in a day, whether meals are packed or served at the table, also influences the selection of food items on the menu. The age, activity level, physiological state, work schedule, and economic factors need to be known before planning meals for institutional catering.

This is one of the most important considerations while planning meals. A variety of foods from the different food groups should be included. The term variety means
1. Variety in food ingredients
2. Variety in recipe
3. Method of cooking
4. Colour, texture and flavour
5. Variety in presentation and garnish.

A meal should look attractive and be appetizing. A judicious blend of flavours, attractive colour combinations and different textures make food enjoyable and interesting. The method of cooking used for different items on the menu should vary.
For example, two deep fried items would make the meal heavy. Simple processes such as fermentation and sprouting not only contribute to improved flavour and digestibility, but also enhance the nutritive value of the meal.
A well planned meal which is nutritionally adequate would have a good satiety value and prevent the occurrence of hunger-pangs before it is time for the next meal. The nutritional adequacy of a meal in an a la carte service depends on the food choices made by the customer. It is the duty of the caterer to offer adequate, nutrient dense foods to the clients, to choose from.


Meal planning involves proper selection of food to ensure balanced meals. In Chapter 20 on balanced diets we have studied how food is classified into five basic food groups to help us plan balanced diets. We have also read that food can be classified on the basis of its source, the nutrients present in it, or on the basis of its functions into 3 – 11 groups. These food groups help us in planning balanced meals which supply all essential nutrients. In this chapter we will study the three basic food groups classified on the basis of functions performed by nutrients as this is the simplest way to ensure adequate nourishment to the body.

The three main functions performed by food are:
1. Providing energy
2. Body building and maintenance
3. Regulation of body processes and protection against infection.

On the basis of functions performed, food is classified into the following three groups.
1. Protective/regulatory foods
2. Body building foods
3. Energy giving foods

Protective/Regulatory Foods
All fruits and vegetables – green leafy and other vegetables and all fruits are included.

Green leafy vegetables, Rich in carotene and
Orange, yellow and red ascorbic acid. Also
Fruits and vegetables, contain minerals, fibre,
Citrus fruits. And carbohydrates.

Body Building Foods
Foods rich in protein are included in this group. Nuts and oilseeds also provide fats.

All animal proteins Protein, vitamin and mineral
Pulses, nuts and oilseeds Protein, vitamin, mineral,

Energy Giving Foods
This group provides mainly carbohydrates and fats, along with proteins, some vitamins and minerals, and essential fatty acids. Foods included in this group are :

1. Cereals and millets, Carbohydrate rich roots and tubers. with other nutrients.
2. Sugars and jaggery Only carbohydrates.
3. Fats and oils Mainly fats.

While planning meals one should ensure that foods from all three groups is included in each meal. This classification is simple and easy to use for menu planning.


1. Collect information regarding the customer with respect to

• Age
• Gender
• Activity level
• Religion
• Socio-economic background
• Food habits

2. Check the RDAs for energy and proteins
3. Prepare a food plan, i.e., list number of servings from each food group to meet the RDA.
4. Decide on number of meals.
5. Distribute servings for each meal.
6. Select foods within each group and state their amount.
7. Plan a menu.
8. Cross check to ensure that all food groups are included in requisite amounts.

Using the above steps, plan a balanced diet for a day.
Example : planning balanced meals for college students residing in a hostel.

1. Basic information

Age : 16 – 18 years
Gender : Male
Activity : Moderate
Religion : Hindu
Background : Urban, middle income families
Food habits : Cosmopolitan

2. Recommended Dietary Allowance for

Calories : 2640
Protein : 78g

3. Food Plan




Almost all foods consumed today need some form of cooking and processing before it is fit for service and consumption. Fruits and vegetables used in salads or for chutney are consumed uncooked. The nutrients we receive from the meals we consume depend to a large extent on cooking and processing practices which are being used. While some amount of nutrient loss is inevitable, cooking has many benefits which are listed below.

Benefits of Cooking Food
1. Cooking increases palatability
2. Cooking makes food easier to digest by destroying anti-digestive factors such as trypsin inhibitor in soya beans.
3. Pathogenic micro-organisms are destroyed.
4. Shelf life is increased by destruction of spoilage organisms and denaturation of enzymes.
5. The appearance of food improves, e.g., cooked meat versus raw meat.

Common Food Processing Techniques
1. Removal of unwanted outer layers, e.g., potato peels, inedible shells and scales of fish, and pea pods, and removal of inedible seeds, stones, etc.
2. Cutting, slicing, micing, grinding, or reducing the size of vegetables, fruits, meat, etc.
3. Liquefaction and emulsification, milling and blending.
4. Heat treatment – blanching, cooking by various methods such as boiling, frying and roasting.
5. Incorporation of air – beating, whipping, aeration of soft drinks.
6. Extrusion.
7. Dehydration, freeze drying, deep freezing, etc.
8. Fermentation.

Food prepared in large quantity in institutional kitchens or in food processing plants is more prone to loss of nutrients, if adequate care is not taken to retain or preserve the nutrient. This is because if food is cooked in bulk, the pre-preparation begins hours in advance, e.g., vegetables have to be cut in advance and if these are not blanched and refrigerated to inactivate enzymes, oxidative losses of labile vitamins will continue at room temperature. Apart from nutritive value, the crisp texture of salads is also lost and phenol containing vegetables will discolour and turn brown, making the dish unattractive and unappetizing.

Effect of heat on nutrients
Cooking has beneficial effects on carbohydrates because of gelatinization of starch, favorable browning reactions such as Maillard reaction and caramelization of sugar which gives colour and flavour to food.
Proteins too take part in Maillard reaction along with sugar. Enzymes which catalyse undesirable enzymatic reactions in fruits such as apple and pears, and vegetables such as potato and brinjal are inactivated on blanching or cooking these foods. Enzymes which hasten oxidative destruction of vitamin C or ascorbic acid are denatured by blanching. Proteins get denatured by heat.
The chemical reactions that take place when oil is heated continuously during deep fat frying bring about hydrolysis, oxidation and polymerization of the oil.
The moisture from the foods being fried hydrolyse fat into free fatty acids, mono and diglycerides and glycerol.
The release of moisture, high frying temperatures of 160-190degrees C, presence of carbonized crumbs in the oil and oxygen from the atmosphere during frying brings about oxidation of the oil. Repeated use of the frying medium forms thermal and vitamins. These products undergo polymerization and increase the viscocity of the oil. The oil darkens in color, has a lower smoke point and foams when used for frying. Such oil should be discarded. Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat used for deep frying specially if the food to be fried is not well coated.

Effect of alkali
Alkali is used during cooking and processing to soften vegetables, make pectin soluble, and dissolve hemicelluloses. It is also used as lye(sodium hydroxide) to peel vegetables during processing. A pinch of sodium bicarbonate added to green vegetables helps in brightening the green colour. However, B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid are destroyed in an alkaline medium. The use of alkali to hasten the cooking process for vegetables and pulses should be discouraged. Excessive cooking in an alkaline medium not only destroys vitamins but makes the texture mushy and gives a soapy taste to the product.

Effect of acid
An acidic medium while cooking helps preserve water soluble vitamins and retards enzymatic browning of certain fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and pulses take a longer time to cook in an acidic medium as acids precipitate pectin and hardens vegetables.

Effect of washing and soaking
While preparing food, water soluble vitamins and minerals leach out into the cooking or washing water. These losses can be minimized by washing the uncut fruit or vegetables and not soaking the cut vegetables in water.
Soaking grains and pulses in water is beneficial as soaking increases digestibility and reduces cooking time.

Effect of sprouting and fermentation
Soaking whole grains overnight in water and tying them in a muslin cloth to allow them to germinate has many beneficial effects.
1. In sprouted grains, the dormant seed becomes active and synthesizes vitamin C.
2. Partial breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats begins making it easier to digest.
3. The bio-availability of nutrients especially calcium and iron increases.
4. The active seeds synthesize vitamin C and thiamine, riboflavin and niacin content increases.

Exposure to air or oxidation
Exposure of finely divided foods to oxygen of the air reduces the vitamin C content by oxidation. The enzyme ascorbic acid oxidase is released when fruits and vegetables are cut. The enzyme activity is temperature dependent and can be inactivated by blanching or by storing cut fruits and vegetables at refrigeration temperatures or by adding acid.
Vitamin A is destroyed on exposure to air. The colour of cut carrots
(carotene) fades due to oxidation and B-complex vitamins are also affected.


Whole meal flour contains all nutrients present in the grain. In flour with 100% extraction no nutrients are lost. Low extraction flours (45% extraction) are light in color and are mainly starch with some protein and fat. Approximately 70% of all B-complex vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre present in the whole grain are lost during milling.
Polished rice(the form in which rice is consumed) loses 75% vitaminB1 or thiamine, while parboiling helps in retaining some of the vitamin.
Cooking and processing practices vary widely from one region to another, hence no authentic information on exact losses can be known. While cooking has both adverse and beneficial effects, proper practices can minimize the adverse effects and maximize the benefits so that food can become more wholesome and safe.

Enhancing nutritive value of food
Process Foodstuff Nutrient
Fortification/enrichment Salt
Hydrogenated fat


Fruit juice Iodine
Lysine (amino acid)
Vitamin A and vitamin D
Vitamin B1, niacin, Fe and Ca.
Vitamin C
Sprouting Whole grain cereals and pulses Vitamin C
B-complex vitamins
Bioavailability of iron increases
Fermentation Cereal and pulses
Bread dough Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin
Food combinations Cereal +pulses
Cereal + small quantity of animal protein
Cereal + pulses + green leafy vegetables Protein quality improves, becomes complete protein.
Iron utensils for cooking and tempering Any food, preferably acidic, cooked or stirred or tempered with iron cooking utensils. Iron
Correct cooking methods Correct washing, pre-preparation, cooking and storage procedures. Maximum retention of nutrients

The release of moisture, high frying temperatures of 160˚C – 190˚C, presence of carbonized crumbs in the oil and oxygen from the atmosphere during frying brings about oxidation of the oil. Repeated use of the frying medium forms thermal and vitamins. These products undergo polymerization and increase the viscosity of the oil. The oil darkens in colour, has alower smoke point, and foams when used for frying. Such oil should be discarded. Fat soluble vitamins dissolve in fat used for deep frying specially if food to be fried is not well coated.

Effect of alkali
Alkali is used during cooking and processing to soften vegetables, make pectin soluble, and dissolve hemicellulose. It is also used as lye (sodium hydroxide) which is a caustic alkaline chemical to peel vegetables during processing. A pinch of sodium bicarbonate added to green vegetables helps in brightening the green colour. However, B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid are destroyed in an alkaline medium.

Balanced Diet


Nutrients are needed by humans in specific amounts to ensure good health and well-being. These nutrient needs are met by eating the right kinds and amounts of food, if a diet is planned and given to an individual with the correct kinds and proportions of different nutrients, and he is asked to follow it everyday, it will become monotonous. Also a diet which is acceptable to one individual may not be acceptable to another individual for many different reasons such as food preferences, customs, food habits, age, economic reasons, and allergies.


While planning balanced diets, we need certain guidelines regarding the kinds and amounts of nutrients that require for maintenance of good health. The RDA is the guideline stating he amount of nutrients to be actually consumed in order to meet the requirements of the body. The RDA is based on requirements.
The requirement for a particular nutrient is the minimum level that needs to be consumed to perform specific functions in the body and to prevent deficiency symptoms. It should also maintain satisfactory stores of the nutrients in the body.
Recommended dietary allowances are based on a person’s requirements for different nutrient. In other words

Recommended Dietary Allowances = Requirement + Margin of safety

The margin of safety is added to take care of factors such as:
1. Losses during cooking and processing
2. Short periods of deficient intake
3. Nature of the diet
4. Individual variations in requirements.

For example the requirement of iron in western countries is 10 mg for adult men and 15 mg for adult women respectively, while Indian RDAs suggest an intake of 28 mg for adult men and 30 mg for adult women. This is because the form of iron consumed varies and the factors interfering with absorption of iron such as phytates in cereals and larger proportions of nonhaeme iron present in Indian diets. The requirement for vitamin C or ascorbic acid is actually 20 mg, but since the vitamin is easily destroyed during pre-preparation, cooking, and storage. The recommended intake is twice the requirement and is 40 mg/day.
The RDAs apply to healthy individuals and are set high enough to cover individual variation. They are based on gender, age, body size, activity level, and special physiological state. Disease and drugs prescribed for treatment for one or more nutrients.

RDAs for Specific Nutrients

The RDAs are expressed in metric units such as kilocalorie (kCal), grams (g), milligrams (mg), and micrograms (µg).
How much food each individual will need will depend on many factors which have been considered while computing the Recommended Dietary allowances. Factors such as age, gender, and special physiological needs have been kept in mind. The RDA table gives us the quantity of different nutrients to be included in our daily diet. The second important factor we need to know to know to ensure the right selection of food is its nutritive value. Most foods contain more than a single nutrient. The nutritive value of different foods have been analysed in the laboratory and on the basis of this information , food consumption tables have been formulated.
This tables give us the percentage of important nutrients in the edible portion of all foods we consume, we can calculate its nutritive value with the help of food consumption tables. This can be compared with the RDAs which will tell us wether our diet is nutritionally adequate or not. The RDA is a goal to be achived and food is selected so that we reach the goal.
However, this process is time consuming and not at all practical as lengthy calculations are necessary. What is needed is a practical guide which can help individuals to select foods of their choice according to their choice according to their nutritional requirements. Since no single food provides all the nutrients in desirable amount, and all foods differ in their nutrient content, it becomes necessary to divide food into groups to help us consume a balanced diet.

Balanced Diet A balanced diet is one which includes a variety of foods in adequate amounts and correct proportions to meet the day’s requirements of all essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, minerals, water and fibre. Such a diet helps to promote and preserve good health and also provides a safety margin or reserve of nutrients to withstand short durations of emergency.
The safety margin takes care of the days on which we fast, or on a certain day all nutrients may not be consumed. If the balanced diet meets the RDA for an individual;, then the safety margin is already included as the RDA is formulated keeping extra allowances in mind.
A balanced diet takes care of the following aspects:

1. It includes a variety of food items
2. It meets the RDA for all nutrients
3. Nutrients are included in correct proportions
4. Provides a safety margin for nutrients
5. It promotes and preserves good health
6. Maintains acceptable body weight for height


One of the simplest ways to plan a balanced diet is to divide foods into groups. Foods are grouped on the basis of the predominant nutrients present in them. They may be classified into three, four, five, seven or eleven food groups. This classification varies from one country to another depending on many factors. For example, in India we do not have milk products or flesh foods as a separate food group because of religion, economic reasons, etc. The five food group classification is used in India as a guide to meal planning. Many factors have been considered while compiling these groups such as availability of food, cost, meal pattern, and deficiency diseases prevalent. Not all foods in each group are equal in their nutrient content. That is why a variety of foods from each group should be included in the diet.
A food group consists of a number of foods which have common characteristics. These common features may be the source of food, the physiological function performed, or the nutrients present.
On the basis of the source of food, at least fourteen groups can be identified, e.g. cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, egg, flesh foods, nujts and oilseeds, sugar and sweetness, fats and oils, root vegetables, other vegetables, green leafy vegetables, fruits, condiments and spices, and miscellaneous foods. This does not simplify the planning of balanced meals. A classification based on nutrients present will ensure that all nutrients made available to the body and offer greater variety within the group.


1. Include at least one or a minimum number of servings from each food group in each meal.
2. Make choices within each group as foods within each group are similar but not identical in nutritive value.
3. If the meal is vegetarian proteins with suitable combinations to improve the overall protein quality of the diet. For example, serving cereal, pulse combinations or including small quantities of milk or curds in the meal.
4. Include uncooked vegetables and fruits in the meals.
5. Include at least one serving of milk to ensure a supply of calcium and other nutrients as milk contains all nutrients except iron, vitamin C, and fibre.
6. Cereals should not supply more than 75% of total calories.

The food guide pyramid is an educational tool that shows the dietry guidelines in the easily understand graphic format. It was originally prepared by the Human Nutrition Information Service and published in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It is meant for use by the general healthy population s a guide for the amounts and types of foods to be included in the daily diet. The pyramid was designed to help teach the concepts of variety, moderation and the inclusion of food types in appropriate proportion in the total diet. The food guide pyramid can be modified for different age groups. Food guide pyramid helps to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and meets the RDA of different nutrients.
FOOD EXCHANGE LIST The food exchange lists are used in meal planning to make a quick and fairly accurate estimation of the nutritive value of diets. These are used to calculate the energy, carbohydrates, fats and proteins content of the meals. The exchange lists were first published by a joint committee of the American Dietetics Association, American Dietetics Association and the U.S. Public Health Services in 1950 and were revised in 1976.
In the making of exchange list, similar foods are grouped together so that specified amounts of all foods listed in that group or exchange, have approximately the same energy, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats content. The nutritive value of specific foods in the exchange may slightly differ from the average value for that food exchange, but on variety of food selected in the daily diet, these differences tend to get cancelled. So any, one food in a particular list can be exchanged for any other food of the same list.
So, an exchange list allows one to make a wider choice in selecting foods within every exchange, while controlling the total energy and fats in the total diet.










Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. Explain factors to consider when selecting cooking methods
  2. Explain the preparation methods for food commodities
  3. Discuss the cooking methods of food items
  4. Describe how to present various dishes
  5. Explain factors to consider when holding and storing different dishes.



  • The type of food
  • Time available
  • Type of fuel
  • Equipment available
  • Personal taste and preference
  • Number of people to be catered for
  • Cost
  • Skill of personnel
  • Culture and religion
  • Desired effect
  • Dietary needs



  • Straining
  • Sieving
  • Chopping
  • Slicing
  • Shredding
  • Dicing
  • Blanching
  • Grating
  • Freezing
  • Chilling/cooling
  • Chopping
  • Cutting




Cooking methods fall under 2 main categories

  • Moist heat
  1. They include boiling, steaming, stewing, frying and poaching
  • Dry heat methods
  1. They include baking and roasting, microwave cooking, grilling etc



  • Moist heating


  1. Boiling

This is cooking food completely covered with water, heated to boiling point (100°c) and then left to simmer in a cooking pot with a well fitting lid. The method is suitable for foods like meats, arrow roots, yams, potatoes, maize and beans.


  1. Stewing

This is cooking food in a small measured amount of liquid that is allowed to simmer.

It is a long slow method of cooking tough hard foods e.g. beef, poultry, vegetables. It is also used for soft foods such as fruits. The aim is to give food enough time to soften and to retain nutrients and flavour.


  1. Steaming

This is cooking food using steam for steam from boiling water. The steam does not come into direct contact with the food; it comes into contact with the container holding the food. It is a suitable method for cooking fish fillet and cake mixture pudding, spinach.

The methods of steaming include:-

  • Plate method
  • Bowl steaming method
  • Using steamer
  • Using colander


Plate Method procedure

Food in the covered plate is placed over a boiling cooking pan root tubers like yams, arrow roots, potatoes can be cooked in the pan at the same time to economize fuel.


  1. Poaching

It is similar to boiling but the temperature is kept below 100°c


  1. Frying
  • Frying is cooking food in hot fat or oil in a pan


There are three methods of frying

  • Shallow fat frying
  • Deep fat frying
  • Dry fat frying

Shallow-fat frying










Deep-fat frying

Food is cooked in hot oil which completely covers the food. A deep fat fryer or a strong deep pan, a frying basket and a draining spoon are required for the process. It is a suitable method for cooking potato chips, mandazi and samosas


Dry-fat frying

This is cooking food in its own fat in a shallow pan or cooking in a lightly greased pan. The fat or oil used to cook comes from the food being cooked. It is used for cooking bacon and cuts of pork.


  1. Dry heat method of cooking
  • Baking

In this method of cooking hot dry air is used. It is usually done in an oven.

It is suitable for foods that have enough moisture such as potatoes and flour mixture for cakes, scones and bread.










  • Roasting

It is a process of cooking food over a fire such as glowing charcoal. It is suitable for cooking maize, sweet potatoes, yams, arrow roots and fish.

Another way of roasting is cooking food in a heated oven or while it is rotating on a spit. In both cases fat is used to boost the food. It is a suitable method for cooking meat


  • Grilling

Foods cooked by grilling are placed over or under the direct heat source and re cooked by radiation. If the food is fairly thick, then only the surface is cooked by radiation and further cooking takes place by condition.









(d) Microwave cooking

Food cooked by conventional methods use heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation but microwave ovens operates by a different mechanism.


 How to present various dishes

Consider the following factors:-

  • The type of food
  • Style of service
  • Temperature of food
  • Service equipment
  • Garnishing
  • Recommended portions
  • Number of courses
  • Occasion
  • Type of establishment
  • Skill of personnel


 Factors to consider when holding and storing different dishes.

  • Quantity
  • Packing material and equipment
  • Temperature
  • Shelf life
  • Storage area



  1. State reasons for cooking foods
  2. Suggest a suitable method of cooking the following foods:-
  3. Tough cuts of meat
  4. Bread rolls
  5. Tomatoes
  6. Chicken
  7. Pancakes
  8. Doughnuts
  9. Chapatti



















Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. Define terms
  2. Name types of herbs, spices and condiments
  3. Explain uses of herbs, spices and condiments
  4. Explain appropriate storage of herbs, spices and condiments


 Definition of terms


Herbs: comes from a Latin word “herba” which means grass or herbage. Herbs are green plants which include roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds. They owe their distinctive aromas and flavors to volatile oils.


Spices: are dried aromatic parts of plants which include roots, bark, leaves, flowers and seeds. They are purchased whole or powdered.


Condiments: comes from the Latin word “condimentum.” They are generally salty, spicy, piquant or stimulating. They include salt, pepper, mustard and vinegar.



  • Fresh herbs
  • Dried herbs
  • Frozen herbs
  • Herb butters
  • Herb vinegars
  • Herb mixtures

 Examples of commonly used herbs, spices and condiments


  • Basil
  • Bay leaves
  • Coriander
  • Chive
  • Lemon grass
  • Mint
  • Oregano
  • Parsley
  • Rosemary
  • Sage
  • Tarragon
  • Thyme
  • Mixed herbs
  • Garlic
  • Horse radish



  • Cardamon
  • Chilli
  • Cinnamon
  • Cloves
  • Coriander seeds
  • Cumin seeds
  • Gramm masala
  • Ginger
  • Turmeric
  • Sesame seeds
  • Vanilla
  • Saffron




  • Salt
  • Pepper
  • Cayenne pepper
  • Paprika
  • Vinegar
  • Mustard


  • To enhance flavor of foods
  • Enhance color of food
  • Therapeutic purposes
  • For preservation purposes
  • To distinguish the origin of cuisine


 Appropriate storage of herbs, spices and condiments

  • Dried ones should be stored in containers with tight fitting lids
  • Liquid ones should be stored in sealed containers
  • Fresh ones should be used as fresh as possible
  • Store in a cool dry place




  • Distinguish between herbs and spices
  • Give three examples of herbs frequently used in food production
  • Write notes on the following
    1. Bouquet garni
    2. Parsley
    3. Ginger


















A recipe is a set of instructions that describe how to prepare or make something, especially a culinary dish. The word is Latin, the second person, singular number, imperative mood of the verb recipere, “to make good”, and its original usage was in the writing of medical prescriptions.




  1. Standard Format
  2. Active Format
  • Narrative Format





  • This recipe format is easy to follow and takes up the least space.
  • Ingredients are listed, so you can determine if you have them on hand.
  • They are listed in the order you use them in the recipe.
  • A step-by-step method follows the ingredient list to tell you how to make the recipe



  • This recipe format has a step-by-step method that is easy to follow, but takes up more space.
  • The ingredients and instructions are combined together in this format.
  • Since the ingredients are not all listed together it is not as easy to check to make sure you have all your ingredients.




  • This recipe format is written in paragraph form giving the ingredients along with the method of combining them. It works well for short recipes with few ingredients.
  • Since the ingredients are not all listed together it is not as easy to check to make sure you have all your ingredients.
















Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. Define terms
  2. State types of stocks, soups and sauces
  3. Describe the methods of producing and presenting stocks, soups and sauces
  4. Explain the uses of stock, soups and sauces
  5. Prepare, produce and present stocks soups and sauces
  6. State qualities of well made stocks, soups and sauces.





Stocks: is a liquid containing the flavor, nourishment and color extracted from raw meat and bones, vegetables such as carrots, celery and onion and seasonings such as bay leaf, parsley stocks and pepper cones by long gentle simmering. It is used as a basis for cooking many dishes such as soups, sauces and gravies.


Sauces: a well-flavored thickened liquid used as an accompaniment for other dishes.


Soups: is a well flavored liquid served as a first course to stimulate appetite





  • White (vegetable or bones)
  • Brown (vegetable or bones)
  • Fish
  • Convenience


  • Brown sauce (Èspagnol)
  • White sauce (Béchamel)
  • Cold sauces (Mayonnaise, mint)
  • Sweet sauces (custard, chocolate, jam, vanilla, orange, )
  • Savory sauces (tomato, curry, gravy, barbeque, )
  • Veloute
  • Hollandaise


  • Clear (consommé)
  • Broth
  • Veloute
  • Puree
  • Cream
  • Pottage
  • Chowder
  • Bisques




Guidelines for preparing stocks

  • Use fresh meat or bones and vegetables
  • Scum should be removed
  • Fat should be skimmed
  • Simmer stock gently
  • It should not be allowed to go off the boil otherwise in hot water there is the danger of it going sour
  • Salt should not be added
  • If stock is to be kept, strain, reboil, cool quickly and place in the refrigerator



  • A white sauce is prepared from white roux with milk and clove-studded onion
  • Veloute is made from a blond roux
  • Brown sauce is based on a brown roux
  • Hollandaise is made by reducing vinegar with herbs and adding egg yolk with a little water, cooking gently over heat while being aerated with a whisk and slowly incorporating melted butter
  • Mayonnaise is an emulsification of egg yolk and oil with salt, pepper, mustard and vinegar




It is important to select the thickening agent that will suit the type of sauce being made:

  • A roux
  • A starch e.g. corn starch, arrowroot
  • Protein like egg yolk and cream
  • A beurre-manie
  • A puree of fruits or vegetables ( also known as coullis)
  • Blood (used traditionally for recipes such as jugged hare but not normally used today)
  • Cooking liquor from certain dishes and/or stock can be reduced to give a light sauce




Unthickened soups

  • Consommés are clear soups prepared from strong stocks which are flavored with various meats (poultry, game, and fish), vegetables, herbs and seasoning and are then clarified with egg whites. Serve alone or with a simple garnish e.g. julienne or strips of root vegetables or pasta among others
  • Broths are strained soups made from stock and garnished with a cereal, mild herbs, diced vegetables, meat or fish


Thickened soups

  • Purees are made from fresh diced vegetables cooked in stocks. The ingredients in the soup are passed through a sieve or blender to make a thick soup
  • Veloutes are prepared from a blond roux and flavored stock with the additions of blanched vegetables, meat, fish poultry and game. They are passed through a sieve and thickened with a liaison of egg yolks and cream.
  • Cream are velvety in consistency and are thickened with cream
  • Bisques are made with shellfish, fish stock, vegetables, wines, herbs and seasoning. They are thickened with rice, passed through a sieve and thickened with wine and cream




  • Used as a basis for cooking many dishes such as soups, sauces and gravies



  • To enhance flavor and appearance of the food it accompanies
  • To provide a contrast in texture to food
  • To provide a contrasting flavor to food that may be mild
  • To add color to the dish
  • To contribute to the nutritional value of the food
  • To counteract the richness of a food
  • White sauce is used as a part of some cream soups and as binding agent



  • To stimulate appetite
  • For therapeutic purposes




  • Should not be greasy
  • Should have its distinctive flavor
  • Should not have an unpleasant flavor
  • Should not be cloudy


  • Should have the right consistency
  • Should be lump free
  • Should have a distinctive flavor


A soup’s quality is determined by its flavor, appearance and texture

  • Should be full flavored with no off or sour taste – soup’s ingredients should blend and complement with no one flavor over powering another
  • The vegetables in vegetable soup should be brightly colored not grey
  • Garnishes should be attractive and uniform in size and shape
  • The soup’s texture should be very precise e.g. smooth, lump free
  • Consommés must be crystal clear when cooked
  • Cream soups should be velvety in consistency





1 Define the terms sauce and soups

2 Explain two qualities of a good sauce

3 Differentiate between a broth and a puree

4 Explain five uses of sauce in a meal

5 Discuss points to observe when making sauces






























There are many factors to be taken into account when planning a menu and it can be a lengthy task, especially for those tackling it for the first time. However a well planned menu can attract new customers, increase the average spend, increase your sales and keep you one step ahead of the competition. Here you will find useful tips and advice to help, including how to meet Trading Standards requirements, create descriptions that will sell a dish and how to produce professional printed menus.


Basic Menu Planning Principles

The basic menu planning principles listed below and discussed in the following pages are a

good starting point. Keep them in mind as you think about your children’s preferences and

nutrition needs.


The five basic menu planning principles are…

  1. Strive for balance.
  2. Emphasize variety.
  3. Add contrast.
  4. Think about color.
  5. Consider eye appeal.


1) Strive for balance

As you work to plan meals that are nourishing, appealing, and taste good, you will want

to strive for balance in a number of ways. As you select and combine foods:

  • Balance flavours in appealing ways.

Make sure individual foods, when served together, make a winning combination.

Too many mild flavors make a meal too bland.

Too many strongly flavored foods make a meal unacceptable to children. For

Example, a lunch or supper menu with sausage pizza, Cajun potatoes, coleslaw,

brownie, and milk has too many strong and spicy flavors

  • Balance higher fat foods with ones that have less fat.

Avoid having too many higher fat foods in the same week. In other words, do not

Include sausage pizza in a week’s menu if you are already planning to serve hot

dogs and fried chicken.

Look for ways to use low fat side dishes to balance a higher fat entrée. For example,

with a grilled cheese sandwich, serve carrot and celery sticks.


  • Emphasize variety.

Serving a variety of foods is important because no one food or group of foods can give

us everything we need for a healthy diet. Variety also makes menus interesting and

appealing. To add variety:

  • Include a wide variety of foods from day to day. Avoid planning the same

form of food on consecutive days, such as meatballs with spaghetti on Monday and

homemade meat ravioli on Tuesday.

  • Vary the types of main courses you serve. For example, serve casseroles one

day, soup and sandwiches the next, or perhaps a main dish-salad.

  • Include different forms of foods, and prepare them in a variety of ways.

For instance, some vegetables are good eaten raw. If you usually serve a particular

vegetable cooked; serve it uncooked if it is good that way. Or cook it but use a

different recipe or seasoning. In any case, be sure the “different way” of serving is

as appealing as the “usual way.”

  • Include a surprise item or a small amount of a new or unfamiliar food

periodically. For example, try adding cauliflower, red cabbage, or spinach to a



  • Add contrast.

Strive for contrasts of texture, flavor, and methods of preparation.

  • Think about the texture of foods as well as their taste and appearance.

For added appeal, serve a green salad or raw vegetable with spaghetti. Serve a

crisp fruit or vegetable with a burrito, and crisp steamed carrots and broccoli with

meatloaf. Pair toasted garlic bread and cold broccoli salad with homemade cheese


  • Avoid having too much of the same type of food in the same meal. A lunch

with too many starches or too many sweets lacks contrast as well as balance. So

does a meal with too many heavy foods. If you are serving a hearty casserole, plan

to serve a vegetable or fresh fruit.

  • Use a pleasing combination of different sizes and shapes of foods. Within a meal, present foods in several different shapes, such as cubes, mounds, shredded

bits and strips. A meal with cubed meat, diced potatoes, mixed vegetables, and

fruit cocktail needs more contrast in size and shape foods.


4) Think about color.

Use combinations of colors that go together well, and strive for contrast and maximum

color presentation. A good rule of thumb is to use at least two colorful foods in each

menu for visual appeal.

  • Avoid using too many foods of the same color in the same meal. A meal

with turkey, rice, cauliflower, white bread, pears, and milk would lack color contrast.

A better combination would be turkey and cranberry sauce, green peas, whole-wheat

bread, orange slices, and milk.

  • Remember that vegetables and fruits are great for adding natural color to

side dishes as well as entrées. A slice of tomato really brightens up a potato

salad. A fresh sliced grape or strawberry livens up a dish of diced pears or peaches.

  • Use colourful foods in combination with those that have little or no color.

Serve broccoli spears with whipped potatoes, for example. Add pimento or green

pepper to corn. Serve a bright red apple and green lettuce with a hamburger,

baked beans, and milk. Serve green peas, apricots with oven fried chicken, mashed

potatoes, and milk.

  • And don’t forget spices. It’s easy to sprinkle on a dash of cinnamon to canned

fruit or a little paprika on vegetables and potatoes for added color.


  • Consider eye appeal.

Your children’s first impression will be how a meal looks. Make sure what you serve

looks good as well as tastes good.

  • Think of the total presentation.

As you plan for color, consider the color of the dishes, plates, or trays to be used as

well as the colors of the foods.

  • Plan the way you will place the menu items on the tray or plate. Visualize

how the food will look when served and decide on the most attractive arrangement.

Family-Style Meal Service

Family-style meal service means serving foods in bowls or dishes on the table. Children

are encouraged to serve themselves, or serve themselves with help from an adult.

Enough food must be placed on the table to provide the full required portion size for all

the children at the table.

Family-style meal service has some advantages…

  • Family-style meals allow children to identify and be introduced to new

foods, new tastes, and new menus. Children are often unsure about new

foods. Seeing new foods and watching others serve themselves gets them

interested. They are more willing to try a small serving when they see other

children trying new foods.

  • Children can choose the amount of food they want to have on their plate.

When foods are served family-style, children may choose to take a small portion of

food, knowing that the food will still be available if they would like a second serving.

Children feel more in control to judge their hunger and fullness throughout the

meal, knowing that more food is within easy reach.

  • Children practice good table manners and new skills with their hands and

fingers. Serving themselves gives children time to practice skills like passing,

pouring , and scooping foods. Taking turns, sharing, and politely turning down

foods are all part of the table manners children learn by participating in family-style

meal service.





As you apply the basic menu planning principles, keep in mind any special

considerations, such as:

  • Regional food preferences
  • Holidays and other special occasions
  • Climate and seasons
  • Product availability


Planning tips…

  • Food preferences: Consider the regional, cultural, and personal food preferences

Of the children you serve, but don’t be afraid to introduce new foods from time to

time. Include new foods and encourage children to try them.

  • Holidays and special occasions: Plan festive meals and snacks for national

holidays, center events, and special occasions like parents’ visiting days. Don’t

forget National Nutrition Month in March!

  • Climate or seasons: Include more hot foods in cold weather, and more cold foods

in warm weather.

  • Product availability: Use foods in season. Plan to serve plenty of fresh fruits and

vegetables when they are plentiful, reasonably priced, and are at the peak of quality


  • Plan meals and snacks that can be prepared in the time available.
  • Consider the amount of self-preparation required for each menu, such as vegetables

to be cut up or items to be made from scratch.

  • Balance the workload – food preparation and clean-up – from day to day and from

week to week.

Steps to Successful Menu Planning

In this section, we will look closely at the following steps:

  • Schedule a time to plan menus. Collect menu resources.
  • Think about changes you want to make.
  • Select a timeframe.
  • Select the main dish.
  • Select the other menu item or items.
  • Evaluate what you have planned.

Plan menus well in advance, preferably a month or more ahead of the time they

are to be served. You will want to:

Review previous menus and any other food service records that indicate the children’s


Involve children, parents, and other interested parties in the planning.

Select and test food products and recipes.

To be prepared, you will want to pull together a variety of menu resources. These

might include, for example, past successful           l menus or recipe files. Check at your local library

for additional resources.

For easy reference, have on hand copies of food production and inventory

records. Also have available publications such as USDA’s Food Buying Guide for Child

Nutrition Programs and Child Care Recipes: Food for Health and Fun.




  • Nutritional meal planning begins with the types of food that you want to serve. Try to stay away from frozen or prepackaged items that have a lot of preservatives and very little nutritional value such as frozen pizza, vegetables packaged in sauce or breaded meat items such as chicken fingers or fish sticks. Use fresh ingredients such as fruits and vegetables whenever possible. Make sure to have a variety of vegetables, especially green vegetables, which are high in nutritional value and low in calories.

Calorie and Fat Content

  • The average adult should eat between 1500 and 2000 calories per day and around 65 grams of fat. While those daily values are the content of the average hamburger and fries fast-food meal, they should be stretched out over your entire day. When planning your nutritional food menu you should take into consideration the caloric and fat content of the meals that you are preparing and how those values are stretched out over your day. The majority of your calories and fats should be eaten early on, at the latest by your lunch meal, with a lower calorie dish for the evening. The evening dish should be consumed no later than four hours before you normally go to bed so as to allow your body time to begin digesting the food. A common mistake when planning meals is to have little or no breakfast, a small lunch and a large evening meal, which will inevitably cause weight gain. By having a hearty breakfast such as whole grain cereal or oatmeal with juice and fruit as well as a good lunch you will resist the urge to snack in the afternoons or to overeat at your evening meal. A good lunch plan is to eat foods rich in vitamins and protein such as a large spinach salad with avocado or grilled chicken. For dinner, serve a vegetable along with a protein and a starch such as broccoli with salmon and a baked potato.

Create Variety

  • Serving nutritional meals does not have to be boring. Making your own homemade “junk food” such as hamburgers and pizza can be both fun and nutritional because you control what ingredients go into the food and how it is made. For instance, use lean ground beef or turkey when making your hamburgers. Serve them with whole grain buns rather than regular hamburger buns to create a healthy alternative to popular fast food. Pizza can also be made using whole grains and fresh toppings to make a fun dinner or snack that has more nutritional value than ordinary take-out or frozen pizza.



































Food presentation is the art of modifying, processing, arranging, or decorating food to enhance its aesthetic appeal.


  • It is said the plate of food is the picture and the rim is the frame, but simple is the way to go.  Do not get too carried away.




  • Good preparation and cooking techniques.

If vegetables are improperly cut during presentation will look improper.

If meat is badly trimmed before cooking, a fancy plating design won’t correct it.

  • Professional work habits

Serving attractive food is largely a matter of being neat and careful and using common sense. This is an aspect of the professionalism.

  • Visual sense

Apart from being neat, effective food presentation depends on developing an understanding of techniques involving balance, arrangement, and garniture.



Balance is mostly used when referring to menu planning.

Some of the points considered are:

  • Colour
  • Shape
  • Texture
  • Flavours


Portion sizes are important for presentation as well as costing.

  • Match portion sizes and plates.
  • Balance the portion sizes of the items on the plate.



Serve hot foods hot, on hot plates.

Serve cold foods cold, on cold plates







A buffet is for food display. The appearance sells the food.


The appearance of an abundance of food laid out is exciting and stimulating to the appetite. There are many ways create this look:

  • Colour

A variety of colour is as vital on a single plate.

  • Height

Flat foods on flat trays on flat tables are uninteresting to the eye.

  • Full platters and bowls

Replenish items as they become depleted.

Arrange platters so they still have interest even when portions have been removed.

  • Proper spacing

Don’t spread items so far apart that the table looks half empty.

  • Overdesigned, over decorated food scares people away from eating it.
  • Excessive garnish is quickly destroyed as customers take portions.
  • Simple arrangements are much easier to keep neat and orderly than are complicated designs.
  • Colours and shapes should look lively and varied, but make sure they go together and do not clash.
  • Keep the style consistent. If it’s formal, then everything should be formal. If it’s casual or rustic, then every part of the presentation should be casual or rustic



  • Hot foods are best served last. If served first, hot foods get cool while the guests make other selections from the cold foods. Also it’s more effective, visually, to place the decorative cold platters first and the less attractive chafing dishes last.
  • The more expensive foods are usually placed after the less expensive items. This gives you some control of food cost, as the guests plates will be nearly full of other attractive foods by the time they get to the costly items.
  • Sauces and dressings should be placed next to the items with which they are to be served.
  • A separate dessert table is often a good idea. This approach allows guests to make a separate trip for dessert without interfering with the main serving line.
  • Plates, of course, must be the first items on the table.





  • Only appetizer type foods are served foods: tasty, well-seasoned foods in small portions.
  • Stacks of small plates are placed beside each item rather than at the beginning of the table.
  • The table or tables must be easy to get to form parts of the room and must not block traffic.



The cold platter is the mainstay of the buffet and offers the most opportunity for visual artistry.

Cold platters can range from a simple tray of cold cuts to elaborate constructions of pates, meats, poultry or fish decorated with aspic, truffles, and vegetable flowers.



  • The three elements of a buffet platter:
  • Centrepiece
  • The slices or serving portions of the main food item, arranged artistically.
  • The garnish, arranged artistically, in proportion to the cuts slices.
  • The food should be easy to handle and serve, so one portion can be removed without ruining the arrangement.
  • A simple design is best. Simple arrangements may be the hardest to produce. Everything has to be perfect because less decoration is available to divide the attention.
  • Attractive platter presentations may be made on silver or other metals,mirrors,china,plastic,wood,or many other materials as long as they are presentable and suitable for use with food.
  • Once a piece of food has touched the tray, do not remove it. Following this rule also helps eliminate over handling of food, which is a bad sanitary practice.
  • Think of the platter as part of the whole buffet. It must look attractive and appropriate not only by itself but among the other presentations on the table.




  • Plan ahead
  • Plan for movement in your design.
  • Give the design a focal point.
  • Keep items in proportion.
  • Let the guest see the best side of everything.



Cheese trays are common on luncheon buffets as a main course item and on dinner buffets as a dessert item. Cheeses are presented differently from cold buffets.

Whole cheeses are more attractive than an arrangement of slices. This helps the guest identify the varieties.

An assortment of fresh fish is often included on a cheese tray, this adds a great deal to the appearance of a cheese presentation, and the flavors go well with cheese.





Cold food for buffets presents a special sanitation problem, this is because the food spends a great deal of time out of refrigeration while it is being assembled and decorated and again while it sits on the buffet.

For this reason, it is important to follow all the rules of safe food handling. Keep the food refrigerated whenever they are not being worked on. Also, keep them chilled until the last minute before they are brought out for service.






Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservation differs from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. For example, driving less is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is an example of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques.

Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, and personal financial security. It is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy.

Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy may choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs, promote economic security, or maximize profit. However, this can lead to unintended rebound effects, which can negate environmental benefits of conservation unless backstops are instituted to prevent overall consumption increases.

















Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. State the classification of proteins
  2. List sources of protein
  3. State factors to consider when selecting protein food
  4. Explain the preparation of protein foods
  5. Outline the production method of protein dishes
  6. Prepare, produce and present protein dishes
  7. Describe the presentation methods of protein dishes
  8. Explain the qualities of a finished protein dish.



  • Animal (High biological value) proteins
  • Plant (Low biological value) proteins


Sources of protein

Animal proteins

  • Red meats
  • Beef
  • Veal
  • Mutton
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Goat meat
  • Offal – liver, kidney, sweet breads
  • Game meat
  • White meat
  • Poultry – chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quails
  • Fish – fresh water, salt water, sea fish, shell fish


Plant proteins

  • Pulses
  • Beans
  • Soya beans (high biological value)
  • Peas
  • Lentils
  • Green grams
  • Cowpeas
  • Black beans e.t.c
  • Nuts
  • Ground nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Almonds
  • Walnuts
  • Chest nuts
  • Hazel nuts



Animal proteins

  • Freshness – without unpleasant odour and the fluid should be watery not sticky
  • Color (dictated by the source of meat e.g. beef should be bright red)
  • Buy from a clean well ventilated shop
  • It should not have excessive fat and bone
  • Texture should be firm and elastic
  • The dish to be prepared
  • The method of cooking


Plant proteins

  • Clean and free from soil and stones
  • Free from signs of pests and diseases
  • Well shaped, firm and not damaged by harvesting equipment, and weather
  • Time available for preparation
  • Availability
  • Season


Preparation of protein foods

The following preparation methods can be used however, it depends on the type of dish to be prepared:-

  • Trimming
  • Cutting
  • Deboning
  • Marinating
  • Larding
  • Trussing
  • Singeing
  • Sealing
  • Barding
  • Carving
  • Tenderizing
  • Sorting (applies to pulses)
  • Soaking (applies to pulses)



Production method of protein dishes

The following cooking methods can be used however; it depends on the type of dish to be prepared

  • Boiling
  • Stewing
  • Roasting
  • Grilling
  • Frying
  • Braising
  • Poaching (particularly for fish)
  • Steaming (particularly for fish)



Presentation methods of protein dishes

The following are guidelines for presentation of protein dishes

  • Clean serving equipment
  • Appropriate serving equipment
  • Food should not overflow
  • Use appropriate garnishes
  • Serve food at the correct temperatures
  • Portion sizes should be correct
  • Serve with suitable accompaniments


Qualities of a finished protein dish.

The following are guidelines for assessing the quality of finished protein dishes

  • Doneness
  • Colour
  • Texture
  • Flavour
  • Temperature
  • Accompaniment
  • Presentation




Poultry should be handled with strict sanitary measures during both cooking and preparation. Preparation

Thaw frozen chicken, Rock Cornish hen, turkey, and duck before cooking. All poultry must be thawed at chill temperatures (36°F to 38°F). Never thaw in water.

Thawed poultry should never be refrozen. Refreezing lowers quality and promotes bacterial growth.

Use thawed poultry as soon as possible. Do not hold in refrigeration more than 24 hours. Longer holding lowers quality and risks spoilage.

Whole turkeys, Rock Cornish hens, ducks, and chickens are wrapped in plastic bags. Remove whole poultry from the shipping containers, but leave in the plastic bag. To speed thawing, spread them out so that air can circulate. Cutup or quartered chickens should be thawed in the intermediate carton. If this carton has an overwrapping, remove it.

Turkeys weighing more than 16 pounds require 3 to 4 days to thaw, at 36°F to 38°F. Turkeys weighing less than 16 pounds require 2 to 3 days. Whole chickens and ducks require 18 to 24 hours and Rock Cornish hens need 12 to 18 hours.

Clean all poultry after thawing by removing any spongy, red lung tissue inside the back, loose membranes, pinfeathers, and skin defects. Wash poultry inside and out under cold, running water and drain. Refrigerate until needed.

NOTE: All cutting boards used for preparing poultry must be thoroughly sanitized after each use.


Procedures for cooking whole turkeys, Rock Cornish hens, chickens, and ducks are described in the AFRS. Poultry maybe cooked using either moist or dry heat. These methods and their variations are explained as follows.

DRY HEAT METHODS.- Care should be taken to prevent the poultry skin from becoming too hard and dry while it is roasting. To prevent dryness, rub the skin of the chicken or turkey with salad oil or shortening. This is not necessary for duck because of its high fat content. If self-basting turkey is supplied, follow the package instructions for cooking. Place the poultry in an open pan, breast side up, on a V-shaped rack if available. A low oven temperature (350°F) should be used for chicken and Rock Cornish hen. Duck and turkey are cooked at 325°F.

If the bird starts browning too soon, aluminum foil may be placed over it to prevent overbrowning. The formation of a hard, dry crust can be prevented by occasionally basting the bird with pan drippings during roasting.

The Navy procures boneless, frozen, cooked, and uncooked turkey rolls. These rolls consist of light and dark meat. The instructions for preparing each type are included with the specific turkey roll and recipes in the AFRS. The boneless turkey roll is equal in quality and flavor to whole turkey, and it is easier and faster to prepare. It also permits accurate portion control, saves storage space, and eliminates waste. However, roast whole turkeys are often prepared for special meals.

As turkey is larger than most other poultry, it is more difficult to cook to the well-done stage without overdoing it. Care should be taken to cook it no longer than necessary; overcooking will result in the loss of juices and stringy, dry meat. The use of a meat thermometer inserted in the thickest part of the thigh muscle will give the internal temperature of the turkey. When the thermometer registers an internal temperature of 180°F to 185°F, the turkey has reached the required stage of doneness. The AFRS contains a timetable for roasting unstuffed turkeys.

MOIST HEAT METHODS.- In moist heat methods, the water should simmer rather than boil to avoid the toughening effect of high temperature on the fibers.  Depending upon the cooking method used, temperatures will vary, but slow to moderate temperatures should be used at all times to develop maximum flavor, tenderness, color, and juiciness.

Intense heat will harden and toughen the protein, shrink the muscles, and dry out the juices, thus producing a less palatable product. All poultry should be cooked to the well-done stage. Follow the AFRS directions for preparation.

Pan-frying.- To panfry poultry, wipe the pieces dry, season them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip the pieces in batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll them in soft bread crumbs before they are fried. Put approximately one-half inch of frying fat in a heavy frying pan and preheat to a temperature of 360°F to 365°F. Add the pieces of poultry to the hot pan. Turn the pieces frequently. Use tongs or two spoons to turn the pieces. Do not use a fork because puncturing the meat with the tines of the fork allows the juices to escape. Cook until well-done.

Oven Frying.- Dip the pieces of poultry in flour, milk and egg mixture, then into crumbs. Place poultry in a shallow pan. Pour the fat over the pieces to ensure an even coating. Cook in the oven.

Deep-Fat Frying.- To deep-fat fry poultry, wipe the pieces dry, season them with salt and pepper, and roll them in flour. If a heavier coating (crust) is desired, dip the pieces in batter or a milk and egg mixture and roll them in soft bread crumbs before they are fried. Place enough fat in the pan to completely cover the pieces of poultry. Preheat the fat to 325°F, then carefully lower the pieces into the fat. Do not crowd. The chicken may be cooked until done, or it may be browned in deep fat and placed in the oven to complete the cooking. Always allow the fat to regain the proper temperature before reloading the fryer.

The giblets (gizzard, heart, and liver) need no preparation other than ordinary washing in cold water before cooking. One precaution-the liver should be inspected closely to detect any sign of bile contamination. The bile sack is often broken during its removal from the liver. Bile damage is easily recognizable by a greenish brown or yellow color on the liver. Any liver indicating bile damage is unfit to eat and must be discarded.

After washing the giblets in cold water, you should place them in just enough cold salted water to cover, bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer approximately 1 hour or until they are tender. (Livers cook much faster than gizzards and should be cooked separately.) Save the stock and chop the giblets (do not grind) for use in the gravy or dressing. Refrigerate them until they are ready to use

7.4 MEAT

Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food .Generally, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal Often, meat is used in a more restrictive sense—the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish and other seafood, poultry, and other animals. Usage varies worldwide by culture, and some countries such as India have large populations that avoid the consumption of all or most kinds of meat. Game or bush meat is also generally distinguished from that produced by agriculture.

The consumption of meat has various traditions and rituals associated with it in different cultures such as kosher and halal and its production is generally regulated by state authorities as well. This article is mainly focused on that process from primary production to consumption.

The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period  allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production. The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:


  • Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the eighth millennium BC.[3] Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt . Presently, more than 200 sheep breeds exist.
  • Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia, and several breeds were established .Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos Taurus (European cattle) and Bos indicus (zebu).
  • Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, modern-day Hungary and in Troy; earlier pottery from Jericho and Egypt depicts wild pigs. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times. Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products.

Other animals are, or have been raised or hunted for their flesh. The type of meat consumed varies much in different cultures, changes over time, and depends on different factors such as the availability of the animals and traditions.




Adult mammalian muscle flesh consists of roughly 75 percent water, 19 percent protein, 2.5 percent intramuscular fat, 1.2 percent carbohydrates and 2.3 percent other soluble non-protein substances. These include nitrogenous compounds, such as amino acids, and inorganic substances such as minerals.

Muscle proteins are either soluble in water or in concentrated salt solutions.

Fat in meat can be either adipose tissue, used by the animal to store energy and consisting of “true fats” (esters of glycerol with fatty acids), or intramuscular fat, which contains considerable quantities of phospholipids and of unsaponifiable constituents such as cholesterol.




Meat can be broadly classified as “red” or “white” depending on the concentration of myoglobin in muscle fibre. When myoglobin is exposed to oxygen, reddish oxymyoglobin develops, making myoglobin-rich meat appear red.

The redness of meat depends on species, animal age, and fibre type: Red meat contains more narrow muscle fibres that tend to operate over long periods without rest, while white meat contains more broad fibres that tend to work in short fast bursts.

The meat of adult mammals such as cows, sheep, goats, and horses is generally considered red, while  fish and domestic chicken and turkey breast meat is generally considered white.







Pork Shoulder Arm Picnic

Pork shoulder arm picnic contains arm bone, shank bone, and a portion of blade bone. It also contains shoulder muscles interspersed with fat. The shank and part of the lower area are covered with skin. It  is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Shoulder Arm Roast

Pork shoulder arm roast is cut from pork shoulder arm picnic. The shank is removed, leaving the round arm bone and the meaty part of the arm picnic. The outside is covered with a thin layer of fat. Pork shoulder arm roast is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Shoulder Arm Steak

Pork shoulder arm steak has the same muscle and bone structure as pork shoulder arm roast, only cut thinner. It contains round arm bone and the meaty part of the arm picnic. The outside is covered with a thin layer of fat. It is usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.


Pork Shoulder Blade (Boston) Roast

Pork shoulder blade (Boston) roast contains the top portion of whole shoulder, the blade bone exposed on two sides, and some intramuscular fat. It is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Shoulder Blade Steak

Pork shoulder blade steak is cut from pork shoulder blade Boston roast. It contains blade bone and several muscles and is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Cubes for Kabobs

Pork cubes for kabob are boneless, lean, and cut into cubes. They are usually prepared by broiling, grilling, braising, pan-frying, or roasting.

Pork Hocks

Pork hocks are cut from picnic shoulder and are similar to pork shank cross cuts. They contain two round shank bones exposed at both ends and are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.

Pork Loin Blade Roast

Pork loin blade roast contains part of the blade bone, rib bones, and backbone. It also contains large loin eye muscle surrounded by several smaller muscles. It is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Loin Blade Chops

Pork loin blade chops are cut from the blade end of loin and contain the same muscle and bone structure as pork loin blade roast, including part of the blade bone, rib bones, backbone, large loin eye muscle and several smaller muscles. Pork loin blade chops are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Country-Style Ribs

Pork loin country-style ribs are made by splitting the blade end of loin into halves lengthwise. The ribs contain part of the loin eye muscle and either rib bones or backbones. They are usually prepared by roasting, baking, braising, broiling, grilling, or by cooking in liquid.




Pork Loin Back Ribs

Pork loin back ribs are cut from the blade and center sections of loin. They contain rib bones, meat between the ribs called finger meat, with a layer of meat covering the ribs that come from the loin eye muscle. Pork loin back ribs are usually prepared by roasting, baking, braising, broiling, grilling, or by cooking in liquid.

Pork Loin Center Rib Roast

Pork loin center rib roast is a cut from the center rib area of loin. It contains loin eye muscle and rib bones, and is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Loin Rib Chops (Center Cut Chops)

Pork loin rib chops, also called center cut chops, contain eye muscle and backbone. Rib bone may also be present, depending on the thickness of the cut. Fat covers the outside edge. These chops are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Center Loin Roast

Pork loin center loin roast is a cut from the center of loin. It contains rib eye, tenderloin muscles, rib bones, T-shaped bones, and a thin fat covering. It is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Loin Top Loin Chops

Pork loin top loin chops contain top loin muscles and backbone running the length of the cut. The tenderloin is removed, and there is an outside covering of fat. These chops are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Butterfly Chops

Pork loin butterfly chops are a double chop, about two inches thick, which comes from the boneless loin eye muscle. It is sliced in half to form two sides resembling a butterfly. Butterfly chops are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Top Loin Roast Boneless (Double)

Pork loin top loin roasts boneless (double) is two boneless loins reversed and tied together with the fat side facing out. It is used to make boneless roast and is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Loin Chops

Pork loin chops are cut from the sirloin end of loin. The eye muscle and tenderloin is divided by a T-shaped bone. The chops also contain backbone and are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Sirloin Roast

Pork loin sirloin roast contains hip bone and backbone. The largest muscle is the eye of loin, separated from the smaller tenderloin muscles by finger bones. It is usually prepared roasting.

Pork Loin Sirloin Chops

Pork loin sirloin chops are cut from the sirloin end of loin. They have the same muscle and bone structure as pork loin sirloin roast, containing hip bone and backbone. The largest muscle is the eye of loin, separated from the smaller tenderloin muscles by finger bones. Pork loin sirloin chops are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Sirloin Cutlets

Pork loin sirloin cutlets are boneless slices cut from the sirloin end of loin after the tenderloin, hip bone, and backbone are removed. They are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Pork Loin Tenderloin Whole

Pork loin tenderloin whole is a boneless cut taken from the inside of loin. The largest end is round and gradually tapers to the thin flat end. Very tender, it is usually prepared by roasting, baking, braising, broiling, or grilling.

Pork Spareribs

Pork spareribs are cut from the side. They contain long rib bones with a thin covering of meat on the outside and between the ribs. They may also contain rib cartilage. Pork spareribs are usually prepared by roasting, baking, broiling, grilling, or by cooking in liquid.



Fresh Side Pork

Fresh side pork is the same cut as slab bacon but it is fresh. It is taken from the section of side that remains after the loin and spareribs are removed. The layered lean from fat is generally used as a seasoning. Fresh side pork is usually prepared by cooking in liquid.

Pork Leg (Fresh Ham) Whole

Pork leg (fresh ham) whole is a bone-in hind leg, usually covered with skin and fat about halfway up the leg. It is usually prepared by roasting.

Pork Leg (Fresh Ham) Shank Portion

Pork leg (fresh ham) shank portion is the lower portion of the leg. It contains shank bone and part of the femur bone. Skin covers the shank and a small portion of the outside muscle. It is usually prepared by roasting or by cooking in liquid.

Ground Pork

Ground pork is unseasoned and ground from wholesale cuts that are generally in limited demand. It is also made from lean trimmings and sold in bulk form. Ground pork is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, pan-frying, roasting, or baking.

Smoked Pork Shoulder Picnic Whole

Smoked pork shoulder picnic whole has the same muscle and bone structure as fresh pork shoulder arm picnic. In addition, it is cured and smoked. It contains arm bone, shank bone, and a portion of blade bone with shoulder muscles interspersed with fat. The shank and a part of the lower area are covered with skin. It is usually prepared by roasting, baking, or by cooking in liquid.

Smoked Pork Shoulder Roll

Smoked pork shoulder roll is the cured and smoked meaty boneless eye of pork shoulder blade Boston roast. It is usually prepared by roasting, baking, or by cooking in liquid.

Smoked Pork Hocks

Smoked pork hocks contain two round shank bones exposed at both ends. They are oval-shaped, two to three inches thick, cured, and smoked. They are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.

Smoked Pork Loin Canadian-Style Bacon

Smoked pork loin Canadian-style bacon is made from boneless loin, a single elongated muscle with little fat. Cured and smoked, it is usually prepared by roasting, baking (if sliced), broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Smoked Pork Loin Rib Chops

Smoked pork loin rib chops have the same muscle and bone structure as fresh pork loin rib chops, but they are also cured and smoked. They contain loin eye muscle and backbone. The rib bone may also be present. They are usually prepared by roasting, baking, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Smoked Pork Loin Chops

Smoked pork loin chops have the same muscle and bone structure as fresh pork loin chops, but they are also cured and smoked. They are cut from the sirloin end of loin and contain eye muscle and tenderloin divided by a T-shaped backbone. They are usually prepared by roasting, baking, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.

Smoked Ham Whole

Smoked ham whole has the same muscle and bone structure as pork leg (fresh ham) whole, but it is also cured and smoked. It contains the bone-in hind leg. It is usually prepared by roasting or baking.

Smoked Ham Shank Portion

Smoked ham shank portion has the same muscle and bone structure as pork leg (fresh ham) shank portion, but it is also cured and smoked. The lower potion of the leg, it contains shank bone and part of the femur bone. It is usually prepared by roasting or baking.

Smoked Ham Rump Portion

Smoked ham rump portion is a portion of cured and smoked ham that contains the aitchbone and part of the leg bone. A thin layer of fat covers the outer surface. It is usually prepared by roasting or baking.

Smoked Ham Center Slice

Smoked ham center slice is cut from the center portion of cured, smoked ham. It contains top, bottom, tip muscles, and round bone. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, pan broiling, pan frying, roasting, or baking.

Slab Bacon

Slab bacon is cured and smoked side. It contains steaks of lean and fat on one side. The other side may be covered with skin. Slab bacon is usually prepared by broiling (if sliced), pan broiling, pan frying, roasting, or baking.

Sliced Bacon

Sliced bacon is sliced from slab bacon. It may be shingled with the outer skin removed. It is usually prepared by broiling, pan broiling, pan frying, roasting, or baking.

Sausage Links

Sausage links are made from ground, fresh meat and with seasonings such as salt, pepper, and sage. These are stuffed into casings and shaped into links. Sausage links are usually prepared by braising, pan frying, roasting, or baking.



Beef Chuck Arm Pot Roast

Beef chuck arm pot roast contains arm bone and sometimes cross-sections of rib bones. It includes several muscles of varying size, separated by connective tissue. Beef chuck arm pot roast is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Arm Steak


Beef chuck arm steak contains arm bone and sometimes cross-sections of rib bones. It includes several muscles of varying size, separated by connective tissue. Beef chuck arm steak is cut thin, usually less than half an inch, and is usually prepared by braising.


Beef Chuck Shoulder Pot Roast Boneless

Beef chuck shoulder pot roast boneless is part of the arm portion of chuck. It has very little fat, is boneless, and is usually prepared by braising.




Beef Chuck Shoulder Steak Boneless

Beef chuck shoulder steak boneless is part of the arm portion of chuck. It has very little fat and is boneless. It is cut thinner than beef chuck pot roast boneless. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Cross Rib Pot Roast

Beef chuck cross rib pot roast is cut from the arm half of beef chuck. It is a square cut, thicker at one end, and contains two or three rib bones and alternating layers of lean and fat. It may be tied. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Short Ribs

Beef chuck short ribs come in rectangular-shaped alternating layers of lean meat and fat. They contain rib bones, the cross-sections of which are exposed, and are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef Chuck Flanken-Style Ribs

Beef chuck flanken-style ribs contain rib bones and alternating streaks of lean meat and fat. The cut is lengthwise, rather than between the ribs as in the case of beef cut short ribs. Flanken-style ribs are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef for Stew

Beef for stew may be cut from chuck, brisket, rib, or plate. It usually consists of meaty pieces, cut into one-inch or two-inch squares and containing various amounts of fat. Beef for stew is usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.


Beef Chuck Blade Roast

Beef chuck blade roast contains blade bone, backbone, rib bone, and a variety of muscles. It is cut about two inches thick and is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Chuck Blade Steak

Beef chuck blade steak is the same as beef chuck blade roast, only it is cut thinner. It contains blade bone, backbone, rib bone, and a variety of muscles. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, or pan broiling.




Beef Chuck 7-Bone Pot Roast

Beef chuck 7-bone pot roast is cut from the center of the blade portion of chuck. It has a classic 7-shaped blade bone and contains backbone, rib bone, and muscles. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck 7-Bone Steak

Beef chuck 7-bone steak is the same as beef chuck 7-bone pot roast, only it is cut thinner, usually less than one-and-a-half inches. It is cut from the center of the blade portion of chuck. It has a classic 7-shaped blade bone, contains backbone, rib bone, and muscles, and is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Top Blade Pot Roast

Beef chuck top blade pot roast contains short 7-shaped blade bone, two or three muscles from the top portion of the blade roast, and a covering of fat on one side. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Under Blade Pot Roast

Beef chuck under blade pot roast contains bones and muscles of the bottom portion of blade roast, including the chuck eye muscles and rib bone. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Chuck Under Blade Streak


Beef chuck under blade streak is the same as beef chuck under Blroast but it is cut thinner, usually less than one-and-a-half inches thick. It contains bones and muscles of the bottom portion of blade roast, including the chuck eye muscles and rib bone. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying


Beef Chuck Under Blade Pot Roast Boneless

Beef chuck under blade pot roast boneless contains chuck eye, several muscles, and narrow streaks of fat. It is the same as beef chuck under blade pot roast, but with the bones removed. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.



Beef Chuck Under Blade Steak Boneless

Beef chuck under blade steak boneless has the same muscles structure as beef chuck under blade pot roast boneless, but it is cut thinner, usually less than one-and-a-half inches thick. It contains chuck eye, several muscles, and narrow streaks of fat. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.



Beef Chuck Mock Tender

Beef chuck mock tender is cut from above the blade bone. It is naturally boneless, consisting of a single tapering muscle with minimal fat. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Top Blade Roast Boneless

Beef chuck top blade roast boneless is a triangular-shaped cut taken from above the blade bone. It is naturally boneless, with large amounts of connective tissue. It is usually prepared by braising.



Beef Chuck Top Blade Steaks Boneless

Beef chuck top blade steaks boneless have the same muscle structure as beef chuck top blade roast boneless, but they are cut into thin slices. The steaks are oval-shaped with minimal fat, and are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.








Beef Chuck Eye Roast Boneless

Beef chuck eye roast boneless contains the meaty inside muscles of blade chuck, some seam fat, and a thin fat cover, if any. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Chuck Eye Steak Boneless

Beef chuck eye steak boneless has the same muscle structure as beef chuck eye roast boneless, but it is sliced. It contains the meaty inside muscles of blade chuck, some seam fat, and a thin fat cover, if any. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.



Beef Shank Cross Cuts

Beef shank cross cuts are cut from the hindshank or fore shank perpendicular to the bone. They are one to two-and-a-half inches thick, and are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef Brisket Point Half Boneless

Beef brisket point half boneless is the brisket (breast) section between the fore shank and plate. It contains of layers of fat and lean meat, but no bones. Often cured in salt brine to make corned beef brisket, it is usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef Brisket Flat Half Boneless

Beef brisket flat half boneless comes from the brisket (breast) section and is cut from the rear portion of lean meat and fat closest to the plate layers. The breast and rib bones are removed. Often cured in salt brine to make corned beef brisket, it is usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef Plate Skirt Steak Boneless

Beef plate skirt steak boneless is the inner diaphragm muscle. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.



Beef Plate Skirt Steak Rolls Boneless

Beef plate skirt steak rolls boneless are the inner diaphragm muscle with elongated muscle. It is usually sliced three-quarters to one-inch thick, rolled to form pinwheels, and either tied or skewered. The steak rolls are usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, pan-broiling, or pan-frying.



Beef Flank Steak

Beef flank steak is a boneless flat-oval cut containing elongated muscle fibers and very little fat. The surface may be scored. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, or grilling.



Beef Flank Steak Rolls

Beef flank steak rolls is beef flank rolled and secured with ties or skewers, cut crosswise into three-quarter to one-inch slices. It is usually prepared by braising, broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.












Beef Rib Roast Large End

Beef rib roast large end is cut from the large end of rib primal, ribs six to nine, or any combination of two or three ribs. It contains large eye muscle with elongated muscling, and is streaked with strips of fat that surround the rib eye. It has a good fat covering, and is usually prepared by roasting.



Beef Rib Roast Small End

Beef rib roast small end is cut from the small end of primal rib. It contains large rib eye muscle and two or more ribs. It is usually prepared by roasting.



Beef Rib Steak Small End

Beef rib steak small end is the same as rib roast small end, but cut thinner (one-inch think or less). It is cut from the small end of primal rib and contains large rib eye muscle and two or more ribs. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Rib Steak Small End Boneless


Beef rib steak small end boneless is the same as rib steak small end, but with the bones removed. It is cut from the small end of primal rib and contains large rib eye muscle. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying









Beef Rib Eye Roast

Beef rib eye roast is the large center muscle of rib (rib eye), with all other muscles, bones, and seam fat removed. It is usually prepared by roasting.



Beef Rib Eye Steak

Beef rib eye steak is cut across the grain from beef rib eye roast. It has little or no fat cover, and is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Top Loin Steak

Beef loin top loin steak, also called beef loin strip steak, contains top loin muscle and backbone running the length of the cut with the tenderloin removed. It has an outside fat covering and is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Top Loin Steak Boneless

Beef loin top loin steak boneless is the same as beef loin top loin steak but with the backbone removed. It contains top loin muscle and is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin T-Bone Steak

Beef loin T-bone steak gets its name from the T-shape of the finger bone and backbone. It contains top loin and tenderloin muscles. The tenderloin is smaller in beef loin T-bone steak than in beef loin porterhouse steak, with a diameter of no less than one-half inch when measured across the center. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Porterhouse Steak

Beef loin porterhouse steak contains top loin, tenderloin muscles, backbone, and finger bone. It is similar to beef loin T-bone steak, but the tenderloin is larger, with a diameter larger than one-and-a-quarter inches when measured across the center. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Wedge Bone Sirloin Steak

Beef loin wedge bone sirloin steak, also called beef loin sirloin steak, contains portions of backbone and hip bone. It varies in bone and muscle structure, depending on the location in the sirloin section of loin. The shape of the hip bone resembles a wedge. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Round Bone Sirloin Steak

Beef loin round bone sirloin steak, also called beef loin sirloin steak, contains portions of backbone and muscle structure. The largest muscles include the top sirloin and tenderloin interspersed with fat. The shape of the hip bone resembles a round bone. The steak is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Flat Bone Sirloin Steak

Beef loin flat bone sirloin steak, also called beef loin sirloin steak, contains the top sirloin and tenderloin muscles. The hip bone is long and flat. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.







Beef Loin Pin Bone Sirloin Steak

Beef loin pin bone sirloin steak, also called beef loin sirloin steak, contains top sirloin and tenderloin muscles and includes the backbone and a portion of the hip bone, which may vary in size. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Shell Sirloin Steak

Beef loin shell sirloin steak is similar to other beef loin sirloin steak, but with the tenderloin muscle removed. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Sirloin Steak Boneless

Beef loin sirloin steak boneless is the same as beef loin sirloin steak but with the bones removed. The muscle structure varies. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Top Sirloin Steak Boneless

Beef loin top sirloin steak boneless is beef loin sirloin steak but with the bones and tenderloin removed. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Loin Tenderloin Roast

Beef loin tenderloin roast is cut from the tenderloin muscle. It is elongated with a rounded large end, gradually tapering to a thin, flat end. It is boneless, with little, if any, fat covering, and very tender. It is usually prepared by roasting or broiling.




Beef Loin Tenderloin Steak (Filet Mignon)

Beef loin tenderloin steak is also referred to as beef loin or as filet mignon. It is cut across the grain from beef loin tenderloin roast and is probably the most tender steak in the carcass. It is usually prepared by roasting, broiling, or grilling.



Beef Round Steak

Beef round steak is a lean, oval-shaped cut containing round bone and three major muscles: top, bottom, and eye of round. It has a thin fat covering on the outer edges and is usually prepared by braising or panfrying.



Beef Round Rump Roast

Beef round rump roast contains aitchbone and three major round muscles: top round, eye of round, and bottom round. A layer of fat covers the outer surface. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Round Rump Roast Boneless

Beef round rump roast boneless is the same as beef round rump roast, but with the bone removed. It contains three major round muscles: top round, eye of round, and bottom round. It is usually tied and prepared by braising or roasting


Beef Round Heel of Round

Beef round heel of round is a boneless, wedge-shaped cut containing top, bottom, and eye of round muscles. It is the least tender cut of round and has considerable amounts of connective tissue. It is usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.



Beef Round Top Round Roast

Beef round top round roast contains inside top muscle of round. Boneless, with a small amount of fat on the outer surface, it is usually prepared by roasting.



Beef Round Top Round Steak

Beef round top round steak has the same muscle structure as beef round top round roast, but it is cut thinner. It contains inside top muscle of round, is boneless with a small amount of fat on the outer surface, and is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Round Bottom Rump Round Roast

Beef round bottom rump round roast has an irregular shape, thickly cut from the outside (or bottom) of round. It comes from the sirloin end of bottom round, has a slight fat covering, and is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Round Bottom Round Roast

Beef round bottom round roast is a thick cut from the outside of round. It has an irregular shape with elongated muscling and a slight fat covering. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Round Eye Round Roast

Beef round eye round roast is cut from eye round muscle removed from bottom round. It is naturally boneless, with an elongated shape and a slight fat covering. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Round Eye Round Steaks

Beef round eye round steaks are steaks cut crosswise from eye muscle. They have a slight fat covering. Eye is the smallest muscle and is round, elongated, and naturally boneless. These steaks are usually prepared by braising, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Round Tip Roast

Beef round tip roast is a wedge-shaped cut from the thin side of round. It contains cap muscle of sirloin and is usually prepared by braising or roasting.



Beef Round Tip Roast Cap Off


Beef round tip roast cap off is the same as beef round tip roast but with the bone, cap muscle, and thin layer of outer fat removed. It is compact, easy to carve, and is usually prepared by braising or roasting


Beef Round Tip Steak Cap Off

Beef round tip steak cap off is a boneless cut with only a slight amount of outer fat and with the cap muscle removed. It is usually prepared by broiling, grilling, panbroiling, or panfrying.



Beef Round Cubes for Kabobs

Beef round cubes for kabobs are lean pieces of round cut into cubes. They are usually taken from the meatiest muscles, such as the tip. They are usually prepared by braising or broiling.




Beef Cubed Steak

Beef cubed steak is square- or rectangular-shaped. The cubed effect is made by a machine that tenderizes the meat mechanically. The steak may be made from muscles of several primal cuts. It is usually prepared by braising or frying.



Ground Beef

Ground beef is made generally from lean meat and trimmings from round, chuck, loin, flank, neck, or shank. It is ground mechanically and usually sold according to percentage of lean relative to fat. Ground beef is usually prepared by broiling, panbroiling, panfrying, roasting, or baking.



Veal Shoulder Arm Roast

Veal shoulder arm roast is a shoulder cut containing arm bone, rib bones from the underside, and cross-sections of bones exposed on the face side. The muscles include shoulder, forearm, and a thin layer of lean meat from brisket. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.

Veal Shoulder Arm Steak

Veal shoulder arm steak has the same structure as veal shoulder arm roast, only cut thinner. The arm steak is a shoulder cut containing arm bone, rib bones from the underside, and cross-sections of bones exposed on the face side. The muscles include shoulder, forearm, and a thin layer of lean brisket. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.

Veal Shoulder Blade Roast

Veal shoulder blade roast contains blade bone exposed on the cut surface and ribs and backbone from the underside. Muscles include chuck, top blade, and chuck tender. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.

Veal Shoulder Blade Steak

Veal shoulder blade steak has the same structure as veal shoulder blade roast, except it is sliced thin. It contains blade bone, backbone, and, depending on the thickness, a rib bone. It is usually prepared by braising or panfrying.

Veal Breast

Veal breast is the rear portion of the foresaddle. It contains lower ribs, is quite lean with some fat layered within lean, has elongated muscling, and a scant fat covering. It is usually prepared by braising or roasting.

Veal Breast Riblets

Veal breast riblets are long narrow cuts containing rib bones, a slight fat covering, and come connective tissue layered within lean. It is usually prepared by braising or cooking in liquid.

Veal for Stew

Veal for stew consists of meaty pieces cut into one- to two-inch squares. They may be cut from the shoulder, shank, or round, and are usually prepared by braising or by cooking in liquid.

Veal Rib Roast

Veal rib roast contains ribs six to twelve, rib eye muscle, featherbones, and part of the chine bone. It does not contain tenderloin. It is usually prepared by roasting

Veal Rib Chops

Veal rib chops contain featherbone, part of the chine bone, and, depending on the thickness, rib bone. The largest muscle is rib eye. Veal rib chops are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.

Veal Rib Crown Roast

Veal rib crown roast is cut from half of primal rib. It contains ribs six through twelve, which have rib bones trimmed one to two inches from the end. The ribs are curved and tied to resemble a crown when the roast rests on the backbone. Veal rib crown roast is usually prepared by roasting.

Veal Loin Roast

Veal loin roast contains loin and tenderloin muscles, backbone, and a T-shaped finger bone. It is usually prepared by roasting

Veal Loin Chops

Veal loin chops contain backbone and finger bone. Muscles include the top loin and tenderloin. The presence of tenderloin distinguishes this chop from a rib chop. The size of the chops gets smaller as the chops near the rib. Veal loin chops are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.

Veal Loin Kidney Chops

Veal loin kidney chops contain backbone and featherbones. Muscles include the loin and tenderloin. The side includes the kidneys. The chops also contain cross-sectional cuts of kidney attached by kidney fat. Veal loin kidney chops are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.


Veal Loin Top Loin Chops

Veal loin top loin chops are the same as veal loin chops, but with the tenderloin removed. They contain backbone and finger bone, and muscles include the top loin. They are usually prepared by braising or pan frying.

Veal Leg Sirloin Roast

Veal leg sirloin roast contains portions of hip bone, backbone, and a variety of muscles. It is usually prepared by roasting.

Veal Leg Sirloin Steak

Veal leg sirloin steak contains portion of backbone and hip bone, The size and shape of the muscles and bones vary. It is usually prepared by braising or pan-frying



Veal Leg Round Roast

Veal leg round roast is cone-shaped with round leg bone exposed. It contains top, bottom, and eye muscles, and is usually prepared by braising or roasting

Veal Leg Round Steak

Veal leg round steak is cut from the center of the leg. It contains top, bottom, eye muscles, and a cross-section of leg bones. It has a thin outer covering of fat and skin and is usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.

Veal Leg Rump Roast

Veal leg rump roast contains three major round muscles: top round, eye round, and bottom round, separated by connective tissue. It also contains aitchbone and a fat covering on the outer muscle. Irregularly shaped, it is usually prepared by braising or roasting.

Veal Cubed Steaks

Veal cubes steaks, made from any boneless lean cut of leg, is identified by its square or rectangular appearance. The cube effect is made by a machine that tenderizes the meat mechanically. The steaks are made from several pieces of meat, though all cuts have the appearance of a single piece. Veal cube steaks are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.




Veal Cutlets

Veal cutlets are thin, boneless, very lean slices from the leg. They are usually prepared by braising or pan-frying.

Ground Veal

Ground veal is lean meat and trimmings mechanically ground and sold in bulk or patty form. It is usually prepared by braising, pan-frying, or roasting.






























Why is Chilling Meat and Poultry Important? Raw meat and poultry products should be maintained at 40° F or below to greatly reduce the growth rate of any pathogenic bacteria that may be present on their surfaces. Chilling is required of all raw product unless it moves directly from the slaughter line to heat processing or cooking (made into hot dogs or luncheon meats, for example), which destroys pathogens.
How is Meat and Poultry Chilled and Maintained at the Plant? Meat and poultry products are chilled immediately after slaughter to acceptable internal temperatures which insure the prompt removal of the animal heat and preserve the wholesomeness of the products. Generally, red meat carcasses (which are above 90° F at the time of slaughter) are chilled in a blast cooler with rapidly moving chilled air, and, in some instances, a cold water shower.

Poultry is required to be chilled to 40° F or less within specified time frames, depending upon the size of the carcass. Whole birds and parts of major size are chilled in ice or ice and water media. Poultry parts are chilled in ice, air or water spray with continuous drainage. Giblets must be chilled to 40° or below within two hours of slaughtering the birds.


How Does Packaging Prolong Storage Times? Packaging is a physical barrier to cross contamination. Microorganisms exist everywhere in nature. They are in the soil, air, and water. The simple act of covering food keeps microorganisms from contacting the food. Covered perishable foods can be stored longer and at better quality than uncovered foods. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging help prolong storage (see following question). Refer to the charts on pages 5 and 6 for recommended storage times.


How are Meat Products Kept Safe During Transportation? To prevent rapid growth of pathogenic bacteria, perishable meat and poultry products should be kept cold (40° or below) or frozen (0° or below) during transport from the plant to a refrigerated warehouse or retail store. Microorganisms capable of causing foodborne illness either don’t grow or grow very slowly at refrigerated temperatures of 40°F. Freezing keeps food safe by slowing the movement of molecules, causing any microbes present to enter a dormant stage. There’s also no risk of dripping juices to contaminate nearby products and storage areas.
How are Meat Products Kept Safe During Loading and Unloading? One of the extremely important places in handling perishable meat and poultry products safely is the receiving dock. Employees should verify the products are at a safe temperature upon arrival. According to the Food and Drug Administration Food Code (which covers retail establishments, not federal) the temperature must be at 5° C (41° F) when received. Employees should also check the conditions of the packaging materials and the sight and smell of the products..


In the Store, How Should Meat Products Be Safely Handled? To protect perishable food from contamination after receipt at the store, food employees must wash their hands before handling it. Raw foods must be kept separate from cooked ready-to-eat foods during storage, preparation, holding and display. Some local jurisdictions may require food handlers to wear gloves.

Frozen foods must be maintained frozen. When “thawed for your convenience,” frozen food must be kept under refrigeration that maintains the food at 5° C (41° F) or below, or completely submerged under running water following strict guidelines outlined in the Food Code.

What Types of Food Are Dated? “Open” dating, or dates you can read, are found primarily on perishable foods such as meat, poultry, eggs and dairy products. “Closed” or “coded” dating might appear on shelf-stable products such as cans and boxes of food.


Types of Dates There are several types of dates:

  • A “Sell-By” date tells the store how long to display the product for sale. You should buy the product before the date expires.
  • A “Best if Used By (or Before)” date is recommended for best flavor or quality. It is not a purchase or safety date.
  • A “Use-By” date is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality. The date has been determined by the manufacturer of the product.
  • “Closed or coded dates” are packing numbers for use by the manufacturer.


Safety After Date Expires Except for “use-by” dates, product dates don’t always refer to home storage and use after purchase. But even if the date expires during home storage, a product should be safe, wholesome and of good quality — if handled properly and kept at 40° F or below. See the accompanying refrigerator charts for storage times of dated products.

Foods can develop an off odor, flavor or appearance due to spoilage bacteria. If a food has developed such characteristics, you should not use it for quality reasons.

If foods are mishandled, however, food borne bacteria can grow and cause food borne illness — before or after the date on the package. For example, if a package of hot dogs is taken to a picnic and left out several hours, the hot dogs wouldn’t be safe to use, even if the date hasn’t expired.

Other examples of potential mishandling are products that have been: defrosted at room temperature more than two hours; cross contaminated; or handled by people who don’t use proper sanitary practices. Make sure to follow the handling and preparation instructions on the label to ensure top quality and safety.




Storage Times Since product dates aren’t a guide for safe use of a product, the consumer should follow these tips to store the food and use it at top quality.

  • Purchase the product before the date expires.
  • If perishable, take the food home immediately after purchase and refrigerate it promptly. Freeze it if you can’t use it within times recommended on chart.
  • Once a perishable product is frozen, it doesn’t matter if the date expires because foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely.
  • Rotate frozen foods; use the oldest first for best flavor and quality.
  • Follow handling recommendations on products



  1. Describe the procedure of trussing poultry
  2. Discuss the cuts of beef available to a chef
  3. Explain five points to observe when buying plant proteins.
  4. Discuss points on storage of proteins












7.8 FISH



They are classified according to the type or by the origin e.g. fresh water fish, salty water fish.

They are three main types of fish:

  1. White/non-fatty e.g. tilapia, king fish, dog fish, halibut.

White fish have flesh which is white & dry because of fat which is usually stored in the liver.

The oil is used for vitamin supplement e.g.

it darker in colour &more nutritive &difficult to digest.

  1. Shell fish e.g. shrimps, lobsters, crabs, cockles, prawns.

They supply plenty of protein but are too expensive.

Fish is a good sauce of protein & people should be encouraged to eat its easier to digest than meat.



  1. Oily fish e.g. Nile perch (mbula),herring,trout,tuna,salmon,sardine,mackerel

The oil is distributed throughout the fish making

It’s a protein food which closely resembles meat in structure & composition but is easier to digest & less satisfying.

A flesh fish is made up of muscles divided into flakes held up together by less connective tissue known as collagen which when cooked by moist heat it changes to gelatin causing flakes to fall apart, its for this reason that fish  is more tender than meat &cooks faster &may break up when serving.

Fish is suitable for invalids as it’s easier to eat &digest.





Fish is a good source of first class protein ranging from 17.5-20.2%.


Fat (oily fish)

The amount of oil may be up to 15%, while in white fish it’s about 1-4%.


Mineral salts

Iodine – found in all sea fish.

Fluorine –found in all sea fish.

Phosphorous –found in all the fish.

Calcium –found in fish eaten with bones

Iron –little amount of iron in some fish.



Vitamin A/O

Present in most oily fish &particularly in cod liver oil.


Vitamin B

Usually in small amounts in most fish.


Nicotic acid

Present in small amount



Fish has white fish has more water than oily fish.



Choice of fish

  • Fish is available in fresh form frozen, canned, smoked, sundried, salted fish.
  • Fish must be bought when fresh because it deteriorates very quickly especially oily &shell fish.


Qualities to look for in fresh fish

  1. Buy fish from a clean fish monger.
  2. Pleasant fish have no smell of ammonia & sourness.
  3. Eyes should be bright & prominent, should be full & not sunken.
  4. The gills should be bright red.
  5. Flesh should be moist &firm to touch.
  6. Scales should be plentiful & flat be also moist.
  7. Incase of shell fish, scales should be highly closed.



  1. Fish should be bought on day of consumption or on the day it’s should be used.
  2. If fish must be stored, rub it loosely in a paper &store it in a refrigerator away from odour absorbing food e.g. milk & butter.
  • If refrigerator isn’t available sprinkle the fish with vinegar or lemon juice &put on plate &store in a cool place.
  1. Do not store flesh fish for more than one day in refrigerator.
  2. Smoked fish can be kept in a refrigerator.




  1. Frozen fish- kept in deep-freeze compartment in 18 degrees centigrade.
  2. Cured fish -smoked fish or salted fish.
  • Canned fish- put in cans.
  1. Pickled fish- put in vinegar solution.


Cuts of fish

  • Steaks – these are thick slices of fish on or off bones.
  • Fillets – parts of fish free from bones.
  • Supremes –dry parts without bones &skin.
  • Goujons- filleted fish cut into stripes of 8*0.5cm
  • Paupiettes- fillets of fish spread with some stuffing & rolled.
  • Plaited prime – fillets cut into 3cm even pieces lengthwise &neatly plaited.



  1. Cleaning the fish, scraping off all the scales against the grain with a knife blade.
  2. Slit the fish along the belly & then you clean by removing the inside, removing internal organs &clean by use of cold water
  3. To do the filleting, cut the flesh along the line of backbone & braise the fillet from the middle to the back & then to the sides & working from head to tail.











Specific Objectives

By the end of this sub-module unit, the trainee should be able to:

  1. Define terms
  2. State sources of starch used in food production
  3. State factors to consider in selecting a starch food
  4. Explain preparation, production and presentation of a starch dish
  5. e) Prepare, produce and present hors d’oeuvres and starter dishes
  6. f) Explain the qualities of a finished starch dish.




Starch is a type of carbohydrate. It is used as a staple food in the diet of most people and it makes the bulk of a meal.


Sources of starch used in food production

  • Tubers
  • Roots
  • Cereals
  • Farinaceous (rice and pasta)
  • Plantains

Factors to consider in selecting a starch food

  • Clean and free from soil and stones
  • Free from signs of pests and diseases
  • Well shaped, firm and not damaged by harvesting equipment, and weather
  • Time available for preparation
  • Availability
  • Season
  • Personal preferences


Preparation, production and presentation of a starch dish


  • Sorting
  • Peeling
  • Grating
  • Slicing
  • Dicing
  • Chipping
  • Stalking


The following cooking methods can be used however it depends on the type of dish to be prepared:-

  • Boiling
  • Stewing
  • Roasting
  • Grilling
  • Frying
  • Baking
  • Braising
  • Baking
  • Steaming

Methods of presenting starch dishes

The following are guidelines for presentation of starch dishes:-

  • Clean serving equipment
  • Appropriate serving equipment
  • Food should not overflow
  • Use appropriate garnishes
  • Serve food at their correct temperatures
  • Portion sizes should be correct
  • Serve with suitable accompaniments


Qualities of a finished starch dish

  • Doneness
  • Color
  • Texture
  • Flavor
  • Temperature
  • Accompaniment
  • Presentation












Potatoes are one of the most important of all foods. It’s a starch food and also can be regarded as a vegetable.

Botanically potato is a tuber which is an enlarged underground stem with buds (or eye) that become new shoots.

Potato is a vegetable but because of its high content of starch it serves its function as a starchy food.

Potatoes are classified according to their starch content. The amount of starch determines the use for which they are usually considered most suitable.

Within each group is a range of starch and moisture content e.g. waxy potatoes have different moisture content depending not only on variety of potato but also on growing and storage conditions.




Waxy potatoes


  • Has high moisture content.
  • Has high sugar content.
  • Usually small and round in shape but some varieties can be large and some elongated.
  • Flesh is white, yellow or even blue or purple.
  • Skin is white, red, yellow or blue.
  • Hold shape well when cooked, firm, moisture texture.


  • For boiling whole.
  • Salads and soups.



Mature or starchy potatoes



  • High starch content
  • Low moisture and sugar
  • Light dry and mealy when cooked.


Russets or idahos



Long, regularly shaped potatoes with slightly rough skin.



  • Used for French fries (deep frying)-because of high starch content produces an even golden colour and good texture. Also the regular shape means less trimming loss.
  • May be mashed.





  • Irregular shape.
  • Not as dry and starchy as russels.


For pureeing or mashing.




  • Yellow fleshed-includes many varieties
  • Red skinned-may have white, pink or yellow flesh most of them are of the waxy type.
  • Red bliss-this is one of the most popular waxy potatoes.
  • All red (pink flesh), early Ohio (white flesh), early rose(white flesh & rose gold(yellow flesh)
  • Blue-skimmed, white fleshed

These are similar to red skinned varieties; expect that their skins range in color from dark reddish blue to purple.

When cooked the skins may keep their color or turn brown, grayish.

Blue or purple fleshed

They may be waxy or starchy. Two most common purple fleshed potatoes are: Peruvian blue(with dark violet flesh)& all-blue(with purple or reddish purple flesh that becomes lavender when cooked)

Fingerling potatoes.

These are small potatoes usually firm and waxy with a long narrow shape. Most popular fingerlings are yellow skinned and yellow-fleshed, but red-skinned, yellow-fleshed fingerlings, red-skinned, pink-fleshed fingerlings & purple fingerlings are also known.




  • Firm & smooth, not soft skin.
  • Dry skin.
  • Shallow eyes (buds)
  • No sprouts, sprouting potatoes are high in sugar
  • No green colour.Greens are developed on potatoes stored in light. These areas contain a substance called solanine which has a bitter taste & is poisonous in large quantities. All green parts should be out of cooking.

Absence of cracks, blemishes & rotten sprouts.





  • Baking is the simplest method for cooking potatoes. Simply pierce the skin of the potatoes a few times with the fork and bake them at 400 degrees Fahrenheit for 40 to 60 minutes, depending on the size of the potatoes. Serve them with butter, salt, pepper, sour cream and chives. Another method is to cut the potatoes into cubes, spray them with olive oil and sprinkle them with salt, pepper, herbs, spices and bread crumbs. Bake them at 450 degrees for 30 to 40 minutes, turning them once halfway through the time.


  • Boiled potatoes are the foundations of a few types of potato dishes. To boil potatoes, cut them into chunks and boil them in water until they are tender when pierced with a fork. Drain the water and use the potatoes in the recipe of your choice. For example, to make mashed potatoes, heat cream and butter in a saucepan, pour it over the boiled potatoes and mash or puree them. Season the mashed potatoes with salt, pepper and herbs to taste. Make boiled potatoes into potato salad by mixing them with mayonnaise, vinegar, salt, pepper and chopped celery. Add substance to a soup by boiling the potatoes in the broth with the rest of the ingredients.

Deep Frying

  • Potato chips and French fries are usually deep fried, which means they are entirely immersed in hot oil. This method produces a crispy exterior on the French fries, or in the case of thin potato chips, an entirely crispy chip. When deep-frying potatoes, heat vegetable oil to a temperature of between 350 and 380 degrees Fahrenheit. Chips should cook within about three minutes, whereas fries require closer to five minutes. Use a frying basket to make it easier to pull the chips or fries out of the oil when they are done.


  • Hash browns and potato pancakes are two popular potato-based dishes that are sautéed. Start with coarsely grated potatoes. For hash browns, mix in parsley, grated onion, salt and pepper. For potato pancakes, add an egg and 1/2 tbsp. of flour for every 2/3 cup of potato, plus grated onion, salt and pepper to taste. Cook hash browns or potato pancakes in an oiled skillet until they have browned on both sides




Pantry Storage

  • Potatoes store for three weeks or longer in the pantry with minimal preparation. Choose firm potatoes with no cuts or soft spots for the longest storage. Temperatures between 45 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit are preferable for long term preservation, as warmer temperatures cause the tubers to sprout. A cool basement area that provides some humidity while maintaining the cooler temperatures is preferable. Avoid placing the potatoes on the floor. Store them in boxes on racks or shelves so air circulates around them.


  • Raw potatoes develop a mealy texture once frozen, but partially cooked potatoes freeze well. Form mashed potatoes into patties and freeze flat before transferring them to a freezer storage bag. Alternatively, blanch cut potatoes in oil at a temperature of 370 degrees Fahrenheit until the potatoes are tender but before they begin to brown. Fried potatoes work well for hash browns or French fries. The frozen potatoes store for up to two months without a significant loss of quail


  • Canned preservation methods only work for potatoes served in a tender state, such as in soups or casseroles. These potatoes have a soft, creamy texture and do not hold their shape well. Peeled, sliced potatoes require 35 minutes of processing in pint jars at 10 to 15 lbs. of pressure, depending on your altitude. Do not use water bath canning methods, as only a pressure canner heats to a high enough temperature to ensure the safety of the preserved potatoes. Canned potatoes store for a year or more.


  • Refrigerated raw potatoes become dark-colored during cooking as the low temperatures inside the fridge cause too much starch in the potatoes to convert to sugar. You can keep cooked potatoes, such as mashed or baked potatoes, in the fridge for a short period of time without darkening. Store the cooked potatoes in a sealed storage container and use them within one to two days.







  • Avoid rinsing potatoes before storing.
  • Place potatoes in a brown paper, burlap or plastic bag with holes in it.
  • Store in a cool, dark, dry place. A root cellar, if you have one, is the best storage option.
  • Make sure the temperature in the area is about 45 to 50 degrees F. Don’t store potatoes in the refrigerator, or they will become too sweet.
  • Avoid storing potatoes with onions because; when close together, they produce gases that spoil both.
  • Store potatoes no longer than two months if mature. If they are new, store no longer than one week.
  • Check on them occasionally and remove those that have become soft or shriveled, as well as those that have sprouted
  • Keep in a cool dry place, ideally at 55-60f (13-60c), if they will be used quickly you may keep them at room temperatures.
  • Purchase only one week’s supply at a time.
  • Potatoes turn brown as soon as they are peeled to prevent browning, place potatoes in cold water as soon as they are peeled.
  • Potatoes may be peeled in advance and stored a short time under water although some nutrients may be lost.
  • Remove all green parts when peeling




10.0 RICE

Rice is a keystone of the grass family that produces a vast number of grains consumed by humans. It has been under intensive cultivation originating in Asia for over 4,000 years and has since spread across the world, where almost a third of the population depends on rice for vital nutrition. This grass is in the genus Oryza, which is separate from that of wheat, spelt, and similar grass crops, although it resembles them in structure.

Like most grasses cultivated for human consumption, rice is an annual crop that needs to be resown for harvest each year. It is grown in partially submerged fields, also called paddies, and when mature, the plant reaches a height of approximately 3 feet (1 meter). Rice has a classically grass-like appearance, with a small cluster of kernels at the top of a long stalk. It’s harvested when it turns golden, and the resulting crop is threshed to remove the hulls. Many developing nations use the chaff as fuel for electricity generation.

There are many cultivars of rice grown around the world, although they can primarily be broken up into long grain varieties such as jasmine and basmati and short grain styles such as those used to make sushi. If the bran, or outer part of the grain, is left on, the resulting product is considered to be brown rice. If removed, the grain is white rice. Many cultures prefer brown because it has a higher nutritional value than white, including important levels of vitamin B.

Rice is a very versatile grain, which can be ground into flour for the gluten intolerant, cooked slowly in paella, or steamed to accompany a wide array of Asian dishes. Popular dishes with it include sticky rice with mango, which uses a special type of short grain rice that comes in white, brown, and black varieties. The black variety is known in Thailand as “forbidden rice.”

Shorter grain rices tend to stick together better and are used for sushi and other dishes in which it needs to be shaped. Longer grain, such as basmati, is looser and frequently appears as a side dish. Rice is also used in the production of grain alcohols such as sake, popular in Japan.

Some white rice is sold enriched with vitamins and minerals in an attempt to provide more complete nutrition to the purchaser, especially in impoverished regions where it is the primary staple food. Some companies have genetically modified rice in an effort to make it retain more nutrients, but these efforts have not been entirely successful.






Appropriate Rice: All white rice

Boiling rice is the simplest method of preparation. The boiling method produces tender grains of rice that are not sticky and can be used for garnishes, soups and salads.



 Appropriate Rice: All

Unlike boiling, the simmering and steaming methods use a measured amount of liquid to ensure the proper texture of the finished product. The gentler, less agitated heat of simmering releases less starch from the rice, keeping it from becoming sticky. This method yields long grain rice that is tender and fluffy. It is good for rice used as a starch to accompany stews and other entrées. Short grain rice cooked by this method is tender with unbroken grains, as with sushi rice.

Steamed Rice

Essentially cooked in the same manner as simmered rice, this process is performed in a commercial steamer. Rice and measured liquid are brought to a boil on the range, then placed in a shallow hotel pan and cooked uncovered in the steamer. Rice cookers are another variation on steaming and simmering methods. This method produces a consistent product by employing a thermostat and timer that cooks the rice at a simmer for precisely the right amount of time. Rice cooker thermostats can also be set to hold rice hot without overcooking it.


Appropriate Rice: Long grain (white, brown, basmati, etc.)

The pilaf method of cooking rice is characterized by the use of a flavored liquid (usually stock) and the addition of aromatic ingredients. The pilaf method is different from methods previously mentioned, as it begins with sweating aromatic ingredients. The rice is added and coated in the same fat, hence the classical French name riz au gras. Like the simmering method, the liquid used in making a pilaf is measured to ensure proper texture when done.


Appropriate Rice: Medium grain or Arborio

Risotto is a classic Italian cooking method for medium grain rice. The risotto method cooks rice at an active simmer while stirring. Hot seasoned liquid is continually added in small amounts until the rice is fully cooked. The result is a hearty dish of medium grain rice bound in a rich sauce thickened by the rice’s own starch. Traditionally Risotto should be rich in flavor and for this reason a seasoned stock or wine are the liquids used. A wide range of additional ingredients can also be added.






Milled rice (white, parboiled or pre-cooked):
If stored properly, it can keep for two years on the pantry shelf.

  • Once opened, rice should be stored in a tightly closed container that keeps out dust, moisture and other contaminants.
  • Keep rice away from foods that have a strong fragrance/aroma as rice can absorb these fragrances over time.
  • When white rice needs to be stored for longer periods of time, it is recommended that it be kept cold. Cooler temperatures preserve the rice and ensure it doesn’t lose its distinct aroma and nutrients.


Whole grain rice (brown, red or black):

  • Because of the oil in the bran layer, this rice has a shelf life of approximately 6 months.
  • Refrigerator or freezer storage is recommended to extend the shelf life.


Long-grain rice: Includes the Indian basmati.

Short-grain rice: The family of Italian Arborio rice, used to make risotto; also used in sushi.

Wild rice: Not really rice at all. Wild rice is a remote relative of white rice, actually a long-grain, aquatic grass.

Brown rice: Healthful, unrefined rice (that means it still has the bran and germ that are removed from white rice) with a slightly nutty flavor.







  1. Giving examples explain any three sources of starch in a diet
  2. Discuss the following processes used in preparation of starch dishes
  3. Chipping
  4. Peeling
  5. Shredding
  6. Stalking
  7. Dicing
  8. Explain three qualities to look for in the evaluation of a finished starch dish



Vegetables are officially defined as edible roots, stems, leaves and flowers. They form part of our daily meals and it is therefore important to understand the preparation of vegetables changes that occur during preparation and how they are handled.

They are source of nutrients in a meal and especially provide vitamin.

The term vegetable can include part seed, shoots, flowers etc.




  1. Roots – They include carrots turnips, radishes, parsnips, Swedes, and celeriac.
  2. Leaves – Leaves can be classified as:
  • Dark green leaves          – spinach




  • Light green vegetables          -cabbage


-brussel sprouts

  1. Tubers -These include potatoes, artichoke, sweet-potatoes, yam, arrowroots etc.
  2. Pods & seeds – e.g. peas, runner beans, sweetcorn, okra, cowpeas.
  3. Fruits -Tomatoes, eggplant (aborigines), Avocado, Baby marrow cucumber,

Pumpkins, pepper.

  1. Stems &shoots -Bean sprouts, asparagus, celery, globe artichoke.
  2. Fungi – Mushroom (homegrown)

(Wild grown)



  1. Buy fresh and crisp vegetables.
  2. Green vegetables should be of good color.
  3. Root vegetables should not be soily.
  4. Vegetables should be of even size not too big and not too small.
  5. Root vegetables should be kept carefully where there is much light.
  6. Green vegetables should not be kept too long otherwise they lose vitamin.




These vegetables may be either steamed or prepared in a fireless cooker.

The usual way is to cook them in water. Clean the vegetables. Then put them on to cook in enough water to keep from burning, but use no seasoning. When the vegetables are tender there should be only a little fluid left and those who eat of the vegetables should take their share of this fluid, for it may contain as high as one-half to two-thirds of the salts. When served, let each one season to taste. Avoid the use of vinegar and all other products of fermentation as much as possible. Lemon juice will furnish all the acid needed for dressing.

The vegetables may be dressed with salt, or salt and butter, or salt and olive oil, and at times with cream, or with the natural gravy from meats, but avoid the use of flour and milk dressings, usually called cream gravy. These vegetables may also be eaten without any dressing.

The water is drained off from corn on the cob, asparagus, artichokes and unpeeled beets.

Vegetables should not be soaked in water, for they lose a part of their value if this is done. Cucumbers may be soaked in water to remove a part of the rank flavor, before being peeled.

“Spinach” is prepared as follows: Wash thoroughly. Put about two tablespoonfuls of water in the bottom of the kettle. Put over the fire and let the spinach wilt. Its juice will then begin to pour out and the spinach will cook in its own juice. Let it cook slowly until tender. Serve the spinach with its proportion of the juice. At first this will taste rather strong, but after a while a person will not want the dry, tasteless mess that is drained, usually served in hotels and restaurants. If some of the roots are left on the spinach, it tastes milder. The roots contain sugar.

Some of these vegetables, such as summer squash, onions and parsnips may be baked. Onions are very good sliced and broiled, but they should never be fried. Beets are good baked, and especially are this true of sugar beets. Radishes are very delicate and delicious when peeled and boiled, but their preparation is tedious. Egg plant is to be stewed, but not fried. As usually served, dipped in egg, rolled in crumbs and fried it is very indigestible.

Beet greens are excellent. They are best if the beets are pulled very young and both the roots and the leaves are used. Turnip tops, dandelion, mustard and Swiss chard are other greens that are good. All of them are prepared like spinach, except that more water is necessary. However, do not use much water.

Those who say that the various vegetables are unfit to eat and act accordingly are missing some good food. The vegetables all contain crude fibre, but they hurt the stomach and intestinal walls no more than they hurt the mucous membrane of the tongue. They furnish some bulk for the intestines to act upon, which is good and proper. All animals need some bulky food, otherwise they become constipated.

Tomatoes are best raw. If they are stewed they are to be cooked plain. Adding crackers and bread crumbs is a mistake. They taste all right without sugar, but a little may be used as dressing.

“Vegetable soup”: Take equal parts of about four vegetables, any that you like. Slice and cook in plain water until tender. When done add enough water or hot milk to make it of the right consistency. Season to taste. One of the constituents may be starchy, such as potatoes, barley or rice, but the rest should be succulent vegetables.


A piece of cut vegetable larger than 3.75cm/1¾-inches. Usually cut before cooking.
Pieces of  vegetables from 12mm/½ -inch to 36mm/1½-inches square.  Can be cut before or after cooking.
Pieces of vegetables between 6mm/¼-inch and 12mm/½ -inch square.  Can be cut before or after cooking.
Thin pieces of vegetables created using a grater. They can be any length depending on the vegetable used but are always wafer thin.
Strips of vegetables usually 3mm/ ⅛- inch square up to 5cm/ 2 inches long standard. Often a mandoline is used for accuracy. Often used as a garnish.
Vegetables which have already been cooked until soft then further broken down with a fork or masher.

Thin “sticks” of vegetables no thicker than 6mm/¼-inch square and 5cm/2-inches long



Very thin slices of vegetables no larger than 6mm/¼-inch square. Most often used as a garnish

Vegetables which have usually already been cooked until soft then mashed then made smooth by rigorous beating or passing through a sieve. With some vegetables a food processor can be used.
Vegetables cut into thin strips generally no wider than 6mm/¼-inch. Usually done before cooking.
Vegetables cut into similar size flat pieces. Can be lengthways or width ways, from 3mm/⅛-inch to 2.5cm/1-inch thick. The use of a mandoline makes slicing vegetables much easier and you can achieve very thin even slices.
Sulfrino vegetable balls are made with a very small melon scoop, sometimes called a Parisienne scoop, up to 12mm/½-inch in diameter. Most usually used for garnishes.


`11.4 Vegetable Cooking Methods


There are lots of different ways of cooking vegetables. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, and each gives the vegetables a particular texture and flavor. Some methods let you use spices; others let you keep the veggies crisper. And some methods are just better suited to certain vegetables.

So which method do you pick? In this section, I’ll go over the different methods for cooking vegetables, and some of their pros and cons.



Boiling is one of the easiest ways to prepare vegetables. All you need is a cooking pot, some water, some vegetables, and maybe a bit of salt. It’s quick and convenient!

But boiling vegetables causes them to lose some of their nutritional value. The boiling water leeches some of the vitamins and nutrients, and even some of the flavor, right out of the veggies. The best way to minimize that nutrient loss is to make sure that they spend as little time as possible in the boiling water. And just how you do that depends on what kind of vegetable you’re boiling.

To learn how to get the most out of your vegetables, check out this article on boiling vegetables for all the details.



Steaming is a great method for cooking vegetables. It cooks the vegetables and softens them up, but because they’re not immersed in water, they don’t lose as many nutrients. It also preserves more of the flavor than boiling does.

And like boiling, steaming is super convenient. Even though you can get a special cooking appliance, a steamer, you really don’t need one. If you have a pot, some water, and a steaming basket, you’re all set. Or if you don’t have a steaming basket, even a colander can do the trick. There’s even a way to steam vegetables using just a pot and a bit of water. What could be easier?

For more information and detailed instructions, check out this article on how to steam vegetables.



Sautéing vegetables, or stir-frying them, mean cooking them over fairly high heat, and stirring them often. The high heat helps them cook quickly, which minimizes nutrient loss. And stirring them keeps them from burning!

Sautéing is a really tasty way to cook vegetables. They keep a lot more flavor than boiling or even steaming, so that you taste how delicious the veggie really is. And it also lends itself really well to seasoning the vegetables. A little bit of oil and spices or a tasty marinade can really make your vegetables go from good to outstanding.

Unlike some of the other methods for cooking vegetables, though, you really have to keep an eye on sautéing vegetables. They can burn pretty quickly!

Find out more about sautéing in this article on how to make sautéed vegetables.



I like to roast vegetables in the fall or winter, when having the oven on warms up the kitchen in a wonderful way, and the smell of delicious food spreads through the house. And a lot of fall vegetables like squash taste so great when they’re roasted.

One of the great things about roasting vegetables is that even though it takes a while to cook, the preparation time is pretty much non-existent – just toss the veggies with a bit of oil and herbs, put them in a baking dish, and let them roast. It’s especially nice when the rest of your meal takes a little more attention, so that you can work on it in peace.

Roasting gives the vegetables a unique flavor that you don’t get by boiling or steaming. Cooking them slowly in the oven helps them caramelize a little bit, bringing out their natural sweetness and enhancing their flavor. And it’s so easy to add a few delicious herbs and spices. Yum!

To find out more about how to do it, check out this article on roasted vegetables.



Some vegetables are just better on the grill. Grilling gives that special cooked outdoors, perfectly browned taste that no other cooking method can match. And you can easily marinate the vegetables, or add some herbs or a sauce to them before cooking to give them some extra flavor.

Zucchini, with just a bit of oil, garlic, salt and pepper is one of my favorite vegetables to grill.

Grilling isn’t quite as convenient as some of the other cooking methods though. For one thing, you need a grill. And that also means it’s usually more of a warm weather kind of meal. But you also have to keep a close eye on the vegetables while they’re cooking. They’ll usually need to be flipped, and checked to be sure they’re not burning. Not as convenient, but well worth the effort!



Braising is a cross between steaming and boiling. Instead of cooking the vegetables by completely immersing them in boiling water, you only add enough water to cover about half the vegetables.

Like steaming, it cooks the vegetables a bit more gently than boiling. But it’s usually a bit quicker than just steaming, since part of the vegetables is in the water. And using just a bit of water means that you don’t lose as many nutrients or flavor, so you get extra delicious vegetables.











They are two or more layers of thin slices of bread with sweets or savory fillings.

Fillings are ingredients put in between slices of bread can either be sweet or savory e.g. fruits or vegetables.

Spread are ingredients applied on slices of bread before the fillings are put.e.g.butter, margarine.



Savory fillings

  1. Canned salmon mashed with lemon juice and chopped chives spread on a bed of cucumber spices
  2. Canned tuna fish mixed with salad cream and chopped parsley with a pinch of cayenne pepper.
  3. A very thin slice of cooked chicken, ham seasoned and placed between bread spread with curry butter
  4. Finely crated cheese mixed to a smooth taste with a little seasoning and spread with butter.
  5. Anchovy mixed hard boiled eggs cheese and butter with sparing of cayenne pepper the bread with curry bread.
  6. Finely shredded lettuce watercress seasoned with salt and mixed with mayonnaise.

Sweet fillings

  1. Banana mashed with lemon juice and ground almonds are sprinkled with sugar.
  2. Chocolate spread with chopped walnuts.
  3. Thick slices of bananas sprinkled with carted chocolate.



  1. Bread
  2. Spread e.g. mayonnaise, jam, butter, marmalade.
  3. Fillings e.g. scrambled eggs, tomatoes, lettuce.
  4. Garnish e.g. parsley, tomatoes, lemon.





  2. A) Simple cold sandwiches

They are made from two slices of bread or two halves of a roll, a spread and a filling.

They are called simple because they are prepared from just two slices of bread.

Simple sandwiches range from a single slice of cheese or meat between two slices of buttered bread to complex constructions like the submarine sandwich.



They are made with more than two slices of bread and with several ingredients in the filling.

A club sandwich is an example of a multidecker sandwich made of three slices of toast and filled with sliced chicken or turkey breast, mayonnaise, lettuce, tomato and bacon.


It’s made with a single slice of bread like large canapés. The filling or the topping should be attractively arranged and garnished


They are small, fancy sandwiches generally made from light, delicate ingredients and bread that has been trimmed of crusts. They are often cut into fancy shapes. Fillings and spreads can be the same as those for canapés


  1. WRAPS

These are sandwiches in which fillings are wrapped like a Mexican burrito, in a flour tortilla or similar flatbread. They may be served whole or cut in half if large.


  1. Prepare and assemble all ingredients
  2. Assemble important equipments including wrapping materials.
  3. Arrange bread slices on the tabletop.
  4. Spread each slice with butter or whatever spread is required.
  5. Place fillings evenly and neatly on alternate slices, leaving the other slices plain. Fillings should not hang over the edges of the bread.
  6. Top the filled slices with the plain buttered slices.
  7. Stack two or three sandwiches and cut with a sharp knife.
  8. To hold, do one of the following:
  • Wrap separately in plastic, waxed paper, or sandwich bags.
  • Place in storage pans, cover tightly with plastic wraps, and cover with clean, damp towels. The towels must not touch the sandwiches; their purpose is to provide a moisture barrier to help prevent drying.
  1. Refrigerate immediately and hold until served.



  1. They should be flesh (ingredients used)
  2. They should have a good shape.
  3. They should be well flavoure&seasoned i.e. aroma.
  4. Color should be very appealing to a person.
  5. They should taste well i.e. well flavored with pepper
  6. Should be well presented.





  1. Always maintain a high standard of hygiene; it’s important because the food won’t be reheated to kill any harmful bacteria which may have been introduced during preparation.
  2. Keep the equipment to be used spotless clean.
  3. Use the food ingredients that are very flesh.
  4. Make the item in small quantity. Do not make in bulk that may take few hours to get spoilt.
  5. Provide the most appropriate storage condition for each item once the food has been prepared it must be stored appropriately.
  6. Cool hot food quickly and refrigerate for later use.
  7. If the food quickly is on display to the customers it could be stored under good condition if not available, the food should not be displayed.
  8. If you are doubtful about fleshiness of the ingredients they should be discarded.





  1. Store sandwiches in highly closed paper or aluminum foil.
  2. Sandwiches should not be stored for long as they go bad quickly.
  3. Store them in a cool dry place e.g. refrigerator
  4. If the fillings are very moist make the sandwiches shortly before they are served because if they are stored for long they get spoilt.



















uce, romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, loose leaf lettuce, chicory, watercress, spinach, cabbage like Chinese cabbage E.T.C.

Raw vegetables like

Avocado, bean sprout, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, celery, celeriac cucumber, Jerusalem artichoke, mushrooms, onions, capsicums, tomatoes, radishes E.T.C.

 Cooked, pickled and canned vegetables like

Asparagus, legumes, beets, carrots, cauliflower, corn, leek, capsicum roasted and pickled, potatoes, chestnuts E.T.C

Starches like

Potatoes, pasta, grains bread (croutons) E.T.C

Fresh, canned, cooked or frozen fruits like

Apples, apricot, bananas, berries, cherries, coconuts, grape fruits, pears, pineapples, plums, dried fruits, melon E.T.C

Protein foods like

Meats, poultry, fish and shell fish, eggs, cheese cold meats products like salamis, polony, ham, E.T.C

CCGuidelines for Arranging Salads

1.      Keep the salad off the rim of the plate.
Think of the rim as a picture frame and arrange the salad within this frame. Select the right plate for the portion size, not too large or too small.2.      Strive for a good balance of colors.
Plain iceberg lettuce looks pale and sickly all by itself, but it can be enlivened by mixing in darker greens and perhaps a few shreds of carrot, red cabbage, or other colored vegetable. On the other hand, don’t go overboard. Sometimes just a few shades of green will create a beautiful effect. Too many colors may look messy.

3.      Height helps make a salad attractive.
Ingredients mounded on the plate are more interesting than if they are spread flat. Lettuce cups as bases add height. Often just a little height is enough. Arrange ingredients like fruit wedges or tomato slices so they overlap or lean against each other rather than lie flat on the plate.

4.      Cut ingredients neatly.
Ragged or sloppy cutting makes the whole salad look sloppy and haphazard.

5.      Make every ingredient identifiable.
Cut every ingredient into large enough pieces that the customer can recognize each immediately. Don’t pulverize everything in the buffalo chopper or VCM. Bite-size pieces are the general rule, unless the ingredient can be cut easily with a fork, such as tomato slices. Seasoning ingredients, like onion, may be chopped fine.

6.      Keep it simple.
A simple, natural arrangement is pleasing. An elaborate design, a gimmicky or contrived arrangement, or a cluttered plate is not pleasing. Besides, elaborate designs take too long to make.





The wide variety of types of salads make it hard to give advice that applies to al salads, but some standard rules of thumb that you must pay attention to are:

Ø  Use the freshest ingredients available
Ø  Mild tasting vegetables like leafy greens must offer texture to the plate by being crisp, and make sure they are free from sand or blemishes.  If serving a dressing , dress the salad by lightly tossing with the dressing prior to service when possible to insure the proper mixture of flavor.
Ø  You may wish to dress dense or strong tasting vegetables by marinating them a day in advance to balance their flavor.
Ø  Plate and serve  cold salads at the last possible minute in a cold dish
Ø  Never overcrowd the plate.  It is a good idea never to let the salad presentation flow outside of the inner rim of the plate.




Making up a salad  bar is an easy way to entertain during summer. As with meal preparations like this, there are no exact recipe amounts, as this is more of an idea rather than an actual recipe.


Set up a table to lay out your salad bar.

Cover the table with a pretty tablecloth suitable for the occasion.

Place the flatware and plates at the start of the salad bar service.

Arrange the salad bar items on the table.

Make sure to keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold. In other words have something to keep foods at the appropriate temperature.

Chilled salad dressings such as Ranch, French, Blue Cheese or Italian

Have your guests pick up their appropriate dinnerware, flatware and napkins before moving down the salad bar to select their salad fixings.



Sauces for salads are often called “dressings”. The concept of salad dressing varies across cultures.

In Western culture, there are three basic types of salad dressing:



The Oils

Generally speaking, any oils labeled “vegetable oil” or “salad oil” are fine for making a basic dressing. You could also use any light, neutral-flavored oil like safflower, canola or soybean oil. One of the most common variations is to substitute olive oil for salad oil. If you do this, make sure you use extra virgin olive oil, not the cheaper, “light” varieties. When you consider the wide range of flavored oils that are available today, including such distinctive oils as walnut or avocado, the possible variations on the basic vinaigrette formula are literally endless.

The Vinegars

The most neutral flavored vinegar is white vinegar, but we wouldn’t likely use this in a dressing. At the very least, use white wine vinegar. But the flavors and types of specialty vinegars, like balsamic, sherry or raspberry, are as varied and diverse as can be. Cider vinegar is made from apples and is a good choice for fruity vinaigrettes. Balsamic vinegar, sweet, dark and aged in specially treated wooden casks, is one of the most sublime vinegars you can find. Another interesting choice, especially for Asian-flavored vinaigrettes, is rice vinegar, which is made from fermented rice.


The Juices

Lemon juice is a nice component to add to dressing. It’s usually used to complement and enhance the vinegar, rather than replacing it altogether — although a simple dressing of olive oil and lemon juice drizzled over a fresh summer salad is hard to beat.

For that matter, you can use all kinds of juices in vinaigrettes, not just lemon — though citrus fruits such as lemon, lime and orange juice are used most commonly because of their high acid content. Orange juice adds sweetness in addition to tartness. Each citrus fruit has its own unique flavor profile, but the overall vinaigrette formula is the same.


Egg Yolk

Egg yolk is an essential ingredient in mayonnaise and other emulsified dressings. For safety pasteurized eggs should be used and the finished product should be refrigerated to avoid spoilage.

The Seasonings

A simple dressing doesn’t need more seasoning than a bit of kosher salt and ground white pepper. But minced garlic, onion, shallot and herbs (fresh and dried) are often part of the mix, along with spices such as black pepper, celery seed, and paprika and so on. Other ingredients, such as mustard or Worcestershire sauce, are not uncommon.

Honey happens to be a great addition to a dressing, firstly because it adds sweetness, which is nice sometimes to counterbalance the tartness from your vinegar, citrus or whatever. But also because it helps stabilize the emulsion. A dressing with honey in it will remain emulsified for a long time — certainly longer than it takes to eat a salad. Honey vinaigrettes are great for presentations, where you don’t want the oil and vinegar separating all over the plate.

Toppings and garnishes

Popular salad garnishes are nuts, croutons, anchovies, bacon bits (real or imitation), garden beet, bell peppers, shredded carrots, diced celery, watercress, sliced cucumber, parsley, sliced mushrooms, sliced red onion, radish, French fries, sunflower seeds (shelled), real or artificial crab meat (surimi) and cherry tomatoes. Various cheeses, berries, seeds and other ingredients can also be added to green salads. Cheeses, in the form of cubes, crumble, or grated, are often used, including blue cheese, Parmesan cheese, and feta cheese. Color considerations are sometimes addressed by using edible flowers, red radishes, carrots, various colors of peppers, and other colorful ingredients.


Definition: In the culinary arts, an emulsion is a mixture of two liquids that would ordinarily not mix together, like oil and vinegar.


There are two kinds of emulsions,


  • Temporary

An example of a temporary emulsion is a simple vinaigrette. You combine the oil and vinegar in a jar, mix them up and they come together for a short time.

The Vinaigrette

We expect a lot from oil and vinegar dressings, or vinaigrettes, as they’re also called. Even the simplest one is asked to do nothing less than defy the laws of nature.

That’s because oil and vinegar don’t mix. No doubt you’ve seen this yourself — shake up a bottle of salad dressing and the two parts come together. But set the bottle down and in seconds they start to separate again, until all the oil is at the top and all the vinegar is at the bottom.

The best we can do is encourage them to come together for a little while, which they will grudgingly do, provided we shake, stir or otherwise mix them up really well.

We call that a temporary emulsion — temporary because the oil and vinegar begin to separate as soon as you stop mixing, stirring or whatever. Here are a few tips and tricks to help your vinaigrettes turn out perfectly every time.


Vinaigrette Variations

Here are a few to get you started:


  • Permanent.

Mayonnaise is an example of a permanent emulsion, consisting of egg yolks and oil. Egg yolks and oil would not naturally mix together, but by slowly whisking the oil into the egg yolks, the two liquids form a stable emulsion that won’t separate.

Mayonnaise is what’s called an emulsion, which is a fancy way of saying that we’re able to make the yolk of a single large egg yolk hold up to a full cup of oil.

The trick is to add the oil VERY slowly at first, while constantly whisking the yolk. Add the oil too fast and your emulsion will break. Making a one-egg mayonnaise is a bit tricky because you literally have to add the oil a drop at a time at first. If you used three or four yolks you wouldn’t have to worry as much — but using four yolks means you’d make about a quart of mayonnaise!

Hollandaise sauce is another permanent emulsion, which is made of egg yolks and clarified butter.

Certain substances act as emulsifiers, which mean they help the two liquids come together and stay together. In the case of mayonnaise and Hollandaise, it is the lecithin in the egg yolks that acts as the emulsifier. Lecithin, a fatty substance soluble in both fat and water, will readily combine with both the egg yolk and the oil or butter, essentially holding the two liquids together.

In a stable emulsion, what happens is that droplets of one of the liquids become evenly dispersed within the other liquid. The resulting liquid is thicker than the two original liquids were. In the case of salad dressing, oil droplets are suspended within the vinegar.

The following are examples of common salad dressings:















Breakfast is the first meal taken after rising from a night’s sleep, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day’s work. Among English speakers, “breakfast” can be used to refer to this meal, or more commonly, to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods (such as eggs, oatmeal and sausage) served at any time of day.

Breakfast foods vary widely from place to place, but often include a carbohydrate such as grains or cereals, fruit and/or vegetables, a protein food such as eggs, meat or fish, and a beverage such as tea, coffee or fruit juice. Coffee, tea, juice, breakfast cereals, pancakes, sausages, bacon, sweet breads, fresh fruit, vegetables, eggs, mushrooms, baked beans, muffins, crumpets and toast with butter or margarine and/or jam or marmalade are common examples of breakfast foods, though a large range of preparations and ingredients are associated with breakfast globally.

Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the most important meal of the day, citing studies that find that people who skip breakfast are disproportionately likely to have problems with concentration, metabolism, and weight. Other nutrition experts believe the claimed metabolic benefits are a common myth, noting the impact on cognition has been found among children, but not among adults, and explain that the connection with increased weight is likely behavioral compensating with snacks and/or eating more later—and therefore not inevitable.



13.2 EGGS



A whole egg consists of a yolk, a white, and a shell. In addition it contains a membrane that lines the shell and forms an air cell at the large end, and two white strands called chalazae that hold the yolk centered.

The yolk is high in both fat and protein, and it contains iron and several vitamins.

Its color ranges from light to dark yellow, depending on the diet of the chicken.

The white is albumin protein, which is clear and soluble when raw but white and firm when coagulated. The also contain sulfur. The white has two parts: a thick portion that surrounds the yolk, and a thinner, more liquid potion outside of this.

The shell is fragile but it is also porous, allowing odors and flavors to be absorbed by the egg and allowing the egg to lose moisture even if unbroken.







Eggs are graded on the quality. There are three qualities: AA, A and B.

The best grade (AA) has a firm yolk and white that stand up high when broken onto a flat surface and do not spread over a large area. In the shell, the yolk is well centered and the air sac is small.

As they age, they lose density. The thin part of the white becomes larger, and the egg spreads over a larger area when broken, and the air sac becomes larger as the egg loses moisture through the shell.



Proper storage is essential for maintaining quality. Eggs keep for weeks if held at 36 degrees F but lose quality quickly if held at room temperature. Store eggs away from foods that might pass on undesirable flavors or odors.



Grade AA is the best to use for fried or poached eggs. Lower grades spread out too much to produce    a high quality product. For hard cooked eggs, use either grade A eggs or grade AA that have been held a few days in the refrigerator.

Grade B eggs are suitable for use in baking, if they have developed no strong flavors, they may be used for scrambled eggs, where the firmness of the whole egg is less important.





Eggs are also graded by size. Each size differs from the next by 3 ounces or 85 grams. Most food service operations use large eggs, and recipes in most books are based on this size.




  1. Fresh eggs or shell eggs.

These are most often used for breakfast cookery.


  1. Frozen eggs
  • Whole eggs
  • White
  • Yolks
  • Whole eggs with extra yolks.

Frozen eggs are usually made from high-quality fresh eggs and are excellent for use in scrambled eggs, omelets, French toast, and in baking. They are pasteurized and are usually purchased in 13.6kg cans. These take at least two days to thaw at refrigerator temperatures.


  1. Dried eggs
  • Whole eggs
  • Yolks
  • Whites
  • Dried eggs are used primarily for baking. They are not suggested for use in breakfast cookery. Dried eggs are not shelf-stable and must be kept refrigerated or frozen, tightly sealed.



In the recent years, cases of salmonella food poisoning have been caused by raw or under-cooked eggs. As a result, cooks have been made more aware of egg-related sanitation concerns. Pasteurized egg products are used in more operations.



Eggs yolks are known to be high in fat and also cholesterol. Efforts to reduce cholesterol in the diet have led to the development of commercial egg substitutes:

Egg substitutes that can be used to make such dishes as scrambled eggs, omelets, and custards are made   of pasteurized eggs whites with the addition of a blend of ingredients to substitute for the yolks, such as vegetable oil, milk solids, vegetable gums, and salt, emulsifiers, and vitamins additives. They are sold in bulk liquid form, usually frozen, and be substituted, ounce for ounce, for whole liquid eggs in most egg preparations.

Eggless egg substitutes contain no egg product. They are made of flours or other starches, plus vegetable gums and stabilizers, and, sometimes, soy protein. They are intended for use in baked goods only and are not suitable for use in breakfast egg preparation or custards.





When cooking eggs avoid high temperatures and long cooking times in short do not overcook. Overcooking produces tough eggs, causes discoloration and affects flavor.



Eggs are largely protein, so the principle of coagulation is important to consider.

Eggs coagulate at the following temperatures:

  • Whole eggs, beaten about 156 degrees F (69 degrees cent grade)
  • Whites 140 degrees to 149 degrees F (60 degrees to 65 degrees cent grade)
  • Yolks 144 degrees to 158 degrees F (62 degrees to 70 degrees cent grade)
  • Custard (whole eggs plus liquid)   175 degrees to 185 degrees F (79 degrees to 85 degrees cent grade)


Egg white coagulates or cooks before yolks. This is why it is possible to cook eggs with firm whites but soft yolks.

Also when the eggs are mixed with a liquid, they become firm at a higher temperature.

As the temperature of coagulation is reached, the eggs change from semi liquid to solid, and they become opaque. If their temperature continues to rise, they become even firmer. An overcooked egg is tough and rubbery. Low temperatures produce the best-cooked eggs.

If egg-liquid mixtures such as custards and scrambled eggs are overcooked, the egg solids separate from the liquids, or curdle. This is often seen as tough, watery scrambled eggs.




The familiar green ring you often see in hard-cooked eggs. It is caused by cooking at high temperatures or cooking too long. The same green colour appears in scrambled eggs that are overcooked or held too long in the steam table.

The ring results when the sulphur in the egg whites reacts with the iron in the yolk to form iron sulphide, a compound that has a green colour and a strong odour and flavour.

In order not to achieve green eggs is to use low temperatures and short cooking and holding times.



Beaten egg whites are used to give lightness and rising power to soufflés, puffy omelettes, cakes, some pancakes and waffles, and other products. Guidelines how to handle egg whit properly:

  1. Fat in bits foaming

When separating eggs, be careful not to get any yolk in the white. Yolks contain fats. Use very clean equipment when beating whites.


  1. Mild acids help foaming

A small amount of lemon juice or cream of tartar gives more volume and stability to beaten egg whites.


  1. Egg whites foam better at room temperature

Remove them from the cooler 1hour before beating

  1. Do not overheat

Beaten egg whites should look moist and shiny. Overbeaten eggs look dry and curdled and have lost much of their ability to raise soufflés and cakes.

  1. Sugar makes foams more stable

When making sweet puffed omelettes and dessert soufflés add some of the sugar to the partially beaten whites and continue to beat to proper stiffness. (This will take longer than when no sugar is added).The soufflé will be more stable before and after baking.





The term hard-boiled egg is not a good one because eggs should be simmered instead of boiled.

Eggs may be simmered in water to the soft, medium, or hard-cooked stage.



The principles of cooking eggs in the shell are applicable to poached eggs. The only difference between the two items is the shell.

This difference, of course, complicates the cooking process. The object is to keep the eggs egg-shaped- that is, in a round, compact mass rather than spread all over the pan.



Standards of quality for poached eggs.

  1. Bright, shiny appearance.
  2. Compact, round shape, not spread or flattened
  3. Firm but tender whites; warm, liquid yolks.



Fried eggs are an especially popular breakfast preparation .They should always be cooked to order and served immediately. The choice of cooking fat is a matter of taste and budget. Butter has the best flavour, but margarine or oil may be used.



Standards of quality for fried eggs

White should be shiny, uniformly set, and tender, not browned, blistered, or crisp at edges.

Yolk should be set properly according to desired doneness. Sunny-side yolks should be yellow and well rounded. In other styles, the yolk is covered with a thin layer of coagulated white.

Relatively compact, standing high. Not spread out and thin.





Shirred eggs resemble fried eggs, except that they are baked in individual serving dishes rather than fried. They may also be baked with or garnished with a variety of meats and sauces.




Scrambled eggs are cooked to order. They may be made in larger quantities. They should be undercooked if they are to hold for volume service, as they will cook more in the steam table.

Do not overcook scrambled eggs or hold them too long. Overcooked eggs are tough and watery, and they eventually turn green in the steam table.

Scrambled eggs should be moist and soft, unless the customer requests “scrambled hard”


Additions to scrambled eggs

Flavor variations may be created by adding any of the following ingredients to scrambled eggs before serving:

  • Chopped parsley and/ or other herbs
  • Grated cheese(cheddar,swiss,parmesan)
  • Diced ham
  • Crumbled bacon
  • Sautéed diced onion and green bell pepper
  • Diced smoked salmon
  • Sliced cooked breakfast sausage.




There are different types like plain, French omelette etc. but French omelette remains the most popular


French omelette

Omelettes are sophisticated scrambled eggs


Elements of preparing omelette:

  1. High heat: the omelette cooks so fast that its internal temperature never has time to get too high.
  2. A conditioned omelette pan. The pan must have sloping sides and be the right size so the omelette can be shaped properly and also it must be well seasoned or conditioned to avoid sticking.






13.3 BREAD

Bread is a staple food prepared by baking a dough of flour and water and often additional ingredients, such as butter or salt to improve the taste.


White bread (left) and brown bread.

Classic French bread, Boule.

Bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including durum, spelt and emmer), rye, barley, maize (corn), and oats, usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour. Spelt bread  continues to be widely consumed in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient Egypt. Canadian bread is known for its heartier consistency due to high protein levels in Canadian flour.

  • White bread is made from flour containing only the central core of the grain (endosperm).
  • Brown bread is made with endosperm and 10% bran. It can also refer to white bread with added coloring (often caramel coloring) to make it brown; this is commonly labeled in America as wheat bread (as opposed to whole-wheat bread).[10]
  • Whole meal bread contains the whole of the wheat grain (endosperm, bran, and germ). It is also referred to as “whole-grain” or “whole-wheat bread”, especially in North America.
  • Wheat germ bread has added wheat germ for flavoring.
  • Whole-grain bread can refer to the same as whole meal bread, or to white bread with added whole grains to increase its fibre content, as in “60% whole-grain bread”.
  • Roti is a whole-wheat-based bread eaten in South Asia. Chapatti is a larger variant of roti. Naan is a leavened equivalent to these.
  • Granary bread is made from flaked wheat grains and white or brown flour. The standard malting process is modified to maximize the maltose or sugar content but minimise residual alpha amylase content. Other flavor components are imparted from partial fermentation due to the particular malting process used and to Maillard reactions on flaking and toasting.
  • Rye bread is made with flour from rye grain of varying levels. It is higher in fiber than many common types of bread and is often darker in color and stronger in flavor. It is popular in Scandinavia, Germany, Finland, the Baltic States, and Russia.
  • Unleavened bread or matzo, used for the Jewish feast of Passover, does not include yeast, so it does not rise.
  • Flatbread is often simple, made with flour, water, and salt, and then formed into flattened dough; most are unleavened, made without yeast or sourdough culture, though some are made with yeast.
  • Hemp bread Hemp seeds do not mill into flour because of their high oil content (~30%). Hemp flour is the by-product after pressing the oil and milling the residue. Hemp flour doesn’t rise, and is best mixed with other flours. A 3:1 ratio produces a hearty, heavy, nutritious loaf high in protein and essential fatty acids.



Make sure your yeast is fresh. Active dry yeast, sold in individual packets, is the easiest type to use, and keeps well in your pantry. There is always a ‘best if used by’ date on the packages, and you should follow this rigorously. If you are going to take the time to make bread, fresh yeast is essential.

Cake yeast, if you can find it, really makes a wonderful loaf of bread. This form of yeast is fresh, stored in the refrigerator, and is very perishable. When you buy it, use it within 1-2 days, or it may mold.

The temperature of the water, whether used to dissolve the yeast, or added to a yeast/flour mixture, is critical. Until you get some experience, use a thermometer. When the yeast is dissolved in the water or other liquid, the temperature must be 110 to 115 degrees. When the yeast is combined with flour and other dry ingredients, the liquid temperature can be higher; about 120 to 130 degrees.


The flour you choose for your bread also makes a difference in the quality of the final product. Bread flour makes a superior loaf. This flour is higher in protein content, and protein, or gluten, is what gives bread its unique texture.

When water is added to flour, two proteins, glutenin and gliadin, combine to form gluten. Gluten forms a network of proteins that stretch through the dough like a web, trapping air bubbles that form as the yeast ferments. This creates the characteristic air holes of perfect bread.

All purpose flour will also work just fine in most bread recipes. Don’t use cake flour because there isn’t enough protein in that type, and your bread will fall because the structure won’t be able to withstand the pressure of the gasses the yeast creates.

Whole grain flours and other types of flour add color, texture, and flavor to breads. These flour types don’t have enough gluten to make a successful loaf on their own, so all purpose or bread flour is almost always added to provide structure.


The type of liquid you use will change the bread characteristics. Water will make a loaf that has more wheat flavor and a crisper crust. Milk and cream-based breads are richer, with a finer texture. These breads brown more quickly because of the additional sugar and butterfat added to the dough. Orange juice is a nice addition to whole wheat breads because its sweetness helps counter the stronger flavor of the whole grain.


Fats like oils, butter and shortening add tenderness and flavor to bread. Breads made with these ingredients are also moister. Make sure you don’t use whipped butter or margarine, or low fat products, since they contain water. The composition of the dough will be weakened, and your loaf will fail.


Eggs add richness, color, and flavor to the dough and resulting bread. Egg breads have a wonderful flavor. Sugar is the fuel that feeds yeast so it ferments, producing carbon dioxide that makes the bread rise. Some bread recipes don’t use sugar, but depend on sugars in the flour to provide food for the yeast.


Salt is essential to every bread recipe. It helps control yeast development, and prevents the bread from over rising. This contributes to good texture. Salt also adds flavor to the bread. It is possible to make salt-free breads, but other ingredients like vinegar or yogurt are added to help control the yeast growth.


Toppings can change the crust of the loaf. Egg glazes are used to attach other ingredients like nuts or seeds. An egg yolk glaze will create a shiny, golden crust. Egg white glazes make a shiny, crisp crust. For a chewy, crisp crust, spray the dough with water while it’s baking. If you brush milk on the dough before baking, the crust will be softer and tender. Brushing the baked loaf with butter will also make the crust softer. Enjoy experimenting with toppings and the recipes!


The term quick bread usually refers to a bread chemically leavened, usually with both baking powder and baking soda, and a balance of acidic ingredients and alkaline ingredients. Examples include pancakes and waffles, muffins and carrot cake, Boston brown bread, and zucchini and banana bread.(this is where today’s decorative slashing of bread loaves originates from) and taken to the communal oven to bake. These communal ovens with time evolved into the modern bakery.


The rapid expansion of steam produced during baking leavens the bread, which is as simple as it is unpredictable. The best known steam-leavened bread is the popover. Steam-leavening is unpredictable since the steam is not produced until the bread is baked.

Steam leavening happens regardless of the rising agents (baking soda, yeast, baking powder, sour dough, beaten egg whites, etc.).

  • The leavening agent either contains air bubbles or generates carbon dioxide.
  • The heat vaporizes the water from the inner surface of the bubbles within the dough.
  • The steam expands and makes the bread rise.

This is the main factor in the rise of bread once it has been put in the oven CO2 generation, on its own, is too small to account for the rise. Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO2 generation is stopped.


Salt rising bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast. Although the leavening action is not always consistent, and requires close attention to the incubating conditions, this bread is making a comeback due to its unique cheese-like flavor and fine texture.[15]


Aerated bread is leavened by carbon dioxide being forced into dough under pressure. The technique is no longer in common use, but from the mid 19th to 20th centuries bread made this way was somewhat popular in the United Kingdom, made by the Aerated Bread Company and sold in its high-street tearooms.

Fats or shortenings

Fats, such as butter, vegetable oils, lard, or that contained in eggs, affect the development of gluten in breads by coating and lubricating the individual strands of protein. They also help to hold the structure together. If too much fat is included in bread dough, the lubrication effect will cause the protein structures to divide. A fat content of approximately 3% by weight is the concentration that will produce the greatest leavening action. In addition to their effects on leavening, fats also serve to tenderize breads and preserve freshness.

Bread improvers

Bread improvers are often used in producing commercial breads to reduce the time needed for rising and to improve texture and volume. Chemical substances commonly used as bread improvers include ascorbic acid, hydrochloride, sodium met bisulfate, ammonium chloride, various phosphates, amylase, and protease.

Salt is one of the most common additives used in production. In addition to enhancing flavor and restricting yeast activity, salt affects the crumb and the overall texture by stabilizing and strengthening the gluten. Some artisan bakers are foregoing early addition of salt to the dough, and are waiting until after a 20-minute “rest”. This is known as an autolyse and is done with both refined and whole-grain flours.

Chemical composition

In wheat, phenolic compounds are mainly found in hulls in the form of insoluble bound ferulic acid where it is relevant to wheat resistance to fungal diseases.[19]

Rye bread contains phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers.[20]

Three natural phenol glucosides, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, p-coumaric acid glucoside and ferulic acid glucoside, can be found in commercial breads containing flaxseed.[21]

Serving and consumption

Bread can be served at any temperature; once baked, it can subsequently be toasted. It is most commonly eaten with the hands, either by itself or as a carrier for other foods. Bread can be dipped into liquids such as gravy, olive oil, or soup; it can be topped with various sweet and savory spreads, or used to make sandwiches containing myriad varieties of meats, cheeses, vegetables, and condiments.


Wrap dry, crusty breads in paper. The paper will allow the crust to remain hard and the bread can breathe. Breads wrapped in paper often become stale within a day. If more than a day of preserving is needed, you can wrap the bread in plastic wrap or a plastic bag and then place the bread in a very cold, dark place, such as a cool pantry or freezer. You may need to place the bread in the oven to allow the crust to become hard again if the freezer causes it to soften. If using a plastic bag, squeeze out all of the air.

Store soft bread, such as sandwich bread, in plastic. Put it in the freezer, or a cool, dark place. Do not allow the bread to be exposed to sunlight, which can cause condensation in the wrapper, creating mold on the bread. Sliced loaves stay fresher if frozen and they thaw more quickly than unsliced loaves.

Store soft, enriched breads in a paper bag if you intend on drying the bread out to make bread crumbs. Don’t store it in plastic, or the bread will mold due to moisture and will not become hard.

Allow baked bread to cool before placing it in plastic storage. This will prevent condensation in the bag, which will stop mold from developing.






  • Cool the quick bread completely before wrapping and freezing. To freeze, wrap securely in aluminum foil, freezer wrap or place in freezer bags. Coffeecakes freeze best in the pan they were baked in. Quick bread loaves and coffeecakes can also be cut into individual servings before freezing. Label all packages with the name of the recipe and date. Use within the recommended storage time (up to 3 months) for the best flavor and texture. Baked products should be stored at 0°F or lower.
  • Quick bread loaves and coffeecakes can be thawed completely at room temperature. Heat frozen individual servings in the microwave or conventional oven as directed below:
    • For microwave oven, place unwrapped individual servings of quick bread loaf or coffeecake on a napkin, microwave-safe paper towel or plate. Microwave on HIGH about 30 seconds for each piece.
    • For conventional oven, heat foil-wrapped individual servings of quick bread loaves or coffeecakes at 350°F for 10 to 15 minutes, depending on the size of the serving.


























14.0  MEATS


Whether cured, smoked, fresh, or fried, it’s usually highly seasoned, thrifty cuts of meat, some of them eaten at other times of the day as well that add savory accents and substance to the breakfast plate.



Bacon—the cured belly, back, or side of a pig—comes in many incarnations, from American streaky bacons and heavily smoked country styles to paprika-coated Hungarian versions. The brine-cured, loin-cut meat that Americans refer to as Canadian bacon is called back bacon in Canada and the UK and rashers in Ireland; a uniquely Canadian variation, pea meal bacon, is Cuts of bacon

  • Side bacon, or streaky bacon, comes from pork belly. It is very fatty with long layers of fat running parallel to the rind. This is the most common form of bacon in the United States. Pancetta is Italian streaky bacon, smoked or aqua (unsmoked), with a strong flavor. It is generally rolled up into cylinders after curing. In America unsmoked streaky bacon is often referred to as side pork.
  • Middle bacon, from the side of the animal, is intermediate in cost, fat content, and flavor between streaky bacon and back bacon.
  • Back bacon (called Irish bacon/Rashers or Canadian bacon in the United States comes from the loin in the middle of the back of the pig. It is a very lean, meaty cut of bacon, with less fat compared to other cuts. It has a ham-like texture. Most bacon consumed in the United Kingdom is back bacon.
  • Cottage bacon is thinly sliced lean pork meat from a shoulder cut that is typically oval shaped and meaty. It is cured and then sliced into round pieces for baking or frying.
  • Jowl bacon is cured and smoked cheeks of pork.
  • Slab bacon typically has a medium to very high fraction of fat. It is made from the belly and side cuts, and from fatback. Slab bacon is not to be confused with salt pork, which is prepared from the same cuts, but is not cured.

Bacon joints include the following:

  • Collar bacon is taken from the back of a pig near the head.
  • Hock, from the hog ankle joint between the ham and the foot.
  • Gammon, from the hind leg, traditionally “Wiltshire cured“.
  • Picnic bacon is from the picnic cut, which includes the shoulder beneath the blade. It is fairly lean, but tougher than most pork cuts.

Sausage is another adaptable standby, from mild Irish sausage and English bangers to deeply savory American smoked sausage and breakfast links. They can be seasoned as highly as piquant Mexican chorizo or as mildly as sagey American breakfast patties. In the British Isles, blood sausage, also called black pudding, is made of pigs’ blood thickened with oatmeal or barley; in other places, such as France and Spain, bread crumbs or rice is used. White pudding, an Irish specialty, is made with pork, lard, grains, and, traditionally, brains.

Offal makes a breakfast table appearance in many countries: scrapple is a Pennsylvania Dutch pudding of pork scraps, cornmeal, and herbs. Goetta, a German equivalent popular in the Cincinnati area, combines offal and leaner cuts of pork and beef with oats. Both are sliced into patties and fried. In the American South, liver pudding is served, like other potted meats such as Spam and canned corned beef, pan-fried with eggs and potatoes or grits. Cretons, a pork pâté, is eaten on toast in Quebec and in northern Maine.

Fresh or fried cold cuts are another common theme, from German smoked sausage, chunky pork jagdwurst, and fleischwurst to Armenia’s air-dried-beef basturma and the salami-like pork roll.In the heartiest breakfasts, meat moves to the center of the plate, as in the diner classic of griddled T-bone steak with eggs or country ham steak with red-eye gravy, which counts among its ingredients another morning staple: coffee.


















A breakfast cereal (or just cereal) is a food made from processed grains that is often eaten with the first meal of the day. It is often eaten cold, usually mixed with milk (e.g. cow’s milk, soy milk, rice milk, almond milk), juice, water, or yogurt, and sometimes fruit, but may be eaten dry. Some companies promote their products for the health benefits from eating oat-based and high-fiber cereals. Cereals may be fortified with vitamins. Some cereals are made with high sugar content. Many breakfast cereals are produced via extrusion.

The breakfast cereal industry has gross profit margins of 40-45%, 90% penetration in some markets, and steady and continued growth throughout its history.


 TYPES OF BREAKFAST CEREALS                                                                                                                       …….

Nutritionists agree that it’s important to have a healthy breakfast each morning. Cereal is a popular breakfast choice. There is a wide variety of cereals to choose from, including many healthy options and some that aren’t recommended by nutritionists due to high sugar content.

Hot Cereal

  • Hot cereal, such as oatmeal, is a popular choice for children and it’s also healthy for adults. Among the best-known brands are Malt-O-Meal and Quakers Oats. Each brand offers flavored, sweetened options as well as plain options. A plain version can be flavored with fruit, honey or cinnamon.

Whole Grain Cereal

  • Cereals made with whole grains can help reduce cholesterol and improve heart health, according to the American Heart Association. Some breakfast cereals high in whole grains are Cheerios, Grape Nuts and Shredded Wheat.

Organic Cereal

  • Organic cereal is similar to its non-organic counterparts, but produced without pesticides and fertilizers and is not genetically engineered. Some popular brands of organic cereals are Environs Kidz, Nature’s Path, Cascadian Farms and Peace. As with non-organic cereals, check the nutrition information for the cereal’s benefits.

Bran Cereal

  • Many people don’t get enough fiber in their diet, and eating bran cereal for breakfast is a good way to correct that. Some options are Raisin Bran and Fiber One. Fiber helps you feel fuller longer, and can make it easier to avoid a mid-morning snack.

Sugary Cereal

  • Sugary cereals like Lucky Charms, Frosted Flakes and Cap’n Crunch are the least nutritious cereal choices but highly popular with consumers. Such cereals are highly processed and contain a significant amount of sugar and preservatives. They are especially popular with children.


Breakfast cereals can become stale, develop odors, lose flavor and even develop mold if improperly stored. Storing your cereal in a proper manner can ensure crisp, fresh cereal for a longer period of time. The ‘best by’ dates are manufacturer estimates of how long the product will remain at peak quality. Most cereals will be safe to consume for a period of time longer than the recommended date. Any cereal that develops mold or a like substance should be discarded for health reasons.

  • Store previously unopened boxes of cereal in a pantry or a like location that is cool and dry. Factory sealed cereal can be stored this way for up to a year.
  • Store opened cereal in a pantry or like location that is cool and dry after having folded the top of the open bag and clipped a chip clip over the top. Cereal can be stored this way for up to a week and maintain optimal freshness.
  • Store larger boxes of opened cereal in a plastic cereal storage container with an air-tight seal. Look for containers with a pour spout for easy access and resealing. Cereal stored in these containers maintains freshness for up to a month. Label the storage date on a piece of tape placed on the container.









Dairy products are generally defined as food produced from the milk of mammals (the Food Standards Agency of the United Kingdom defines dairy as “foodstuffs made from mammalian milk”). They are usually high energy-yielding food products. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Apart from breastfed infants, the human consumption of dairy products is sourced primarily from the milk of cows, yet goats, sheep, yaks, camels, and other mammals are other sources of dairy products consumed by humans. Dairy products are commonly found in European, Middle Eastern and Indian cuisine, whereas aside from Mongolian cuisine they are little-known in traditional East Asian cuisine.


Milk after optional homogenization, pasteurization, in several grades after standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of bacteria Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum


      • Clotted cream, thick, spoonable cream made by heating
      • Smetana, Central and Eastern European variety of sour cream
    • Cultured milk resembling buttermilk, but uses different yeast and bacterial cultures
  • Powdered milk (or milk powder), produced by removing the water from   (usually skim) milk
      • Whole milk products
      • Buttermilk products
      • Skim milk
      • Whey products
      • Ice cream
      • High milk-fat and nutritional products (for infant formulas)
      • Cultured and confectionery products
    • Condensed milk, milk which has been concentrated by evaporation, with sugar added for reduced process time and longer life in an opened can
    • Khava, milk which has been completely concentrated by evaporation, used in Indian sweets (gulab jamun, pedha and many more)
    • Evaporated milk, (less concentrated than condensed) milk without added sugar
    • Ricotta, acidified whey, reduced in volume
    • Khoa, dairy product used in Indian cuisine
    • Infant formula, dried milk powder with specific additives for feeding human infants
    • Baked milk, a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia
  • Butter, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream
    • Buttermilk, the liquid left over after producing butter from cream, often dried as livestock feed
    • Ghee, clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter
    • Smen, a fermented, clarified butter used in Moroccan cooking
    • Anhydrous milkfat (clarified butter)
  • Cheese, produced by coagulating milk, separating from whey and letting it ripen, generally with bacteria and sometimes also with certain molds
    • Curds, the soft, curdled part of milk (or skim milk) used to make cheese
    • Paneer
    • Whey, the liquid drained from curds and used for further processing or as a livestock feed
    • Cottage cheese
    • Quark
    • Cream cheese, produced by the addition of cream to milk and then curdled to form a rich curd or cheese
    • Fromage frais
  • Casein
    • Caseinates, sodium or calcium salts of casein
    • Milk protein concentrates and isolates
    • Whey protein concentrates and isolates, reduced lactose whey
    • Hydrolysates, milk treated with proteolytic enzymes to alter functionality
    • Mineral concentrates, byproduct of demineralizing whey
  • Yogurt, milk fermented by Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sometimes with additional bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Clabber, milk naturally fermented to a yogurt-like state
  • Gelato, slowly frozen milk and water, lesser fat than ice cream
  • Ice cream, slowly frozen cream, milk, flavors and emulsifying additives


Milk, cream and other related dairy products play important roles in cooking.

This is the concentrated, fatty layer that rises to the top of un-homogenized milk. There are various terms for cream, based on its fat content:


Half-and-half: This is mainly used for cups of coffee. It contains (surprise, surprise!) one half milk and one-half cream, and 10 to 12 per cent fat.

Whipping Cream: The 30% butterfat in this product allows it to thicken when whipped – but it does not end up as thick as when you whip heavy cream. (This product is mostly known in the USA and unknown elsewhere.)

Light cream: This may be used in recipes for soups and sauces, and contains 18 to 30 per cent fat.

Heavy cream (or double cream): This can be whipped. It doubles in volume when whipped and has 36 to 40 per cent fat.

Sour Cream

Sour cream is popular as a topping for baked potato or soups, and as the base for many dips. It is also used in baking recipes, such as Chocolate Cake. Sour cream is made by adding lactic acid to cream. It contains 18 per cent fat, but also comes in low and non-fat (thickened with stabilizers) versions. Plain yogurt can often be used as a substitute for sour cream.

Clotted Cream (Devon cream)

This British invention is integral to the tradition of “afternoon tea,” used as a spread on scones (along with jam.)

Clotted cream is made by heating unpasteurized milk and skimming off the surface layer (which is the clotted cream.)

Crème Fraiche

This French delicacy is a thickened, soured cream that’s often used as a fruit or dessert topping, or as a topping for soup. It has about 28 per cent fat, and is traditionally made with unpasteurized milk. In the U.S., it’s quite expensive.

According to Epicurious, you can make crème fraiche at home by mixing one cup of whipping cream with two tablespoons of buttermilk in a glass container. Let the mixture stand at room temperature for 8 to 24 hours, or until thick. Stir, cover and refrigerate for up to 10 days.

Whole Milk

The “whole” in whole milk refers to the fact that it contains the natural 3.5 per cent fat content of cow’s milk. Most milk bought in shops has been pasteurized – heated and then quickly cooled – to kill bacteria, and homogenized so that the cream (milk fat or butterfat) does not separate and rise to the top.

Whole milk is recommended for babies and young children, whose growing bodies need the full fat content. For those of us who aren’t growing (or don’t want to!) there are three common varieties available that are lower in fat: one that contains two-per-cent fat and another that contains 1 per cent. Skim milk contains less than half a per cent of fat.

Milk is available in several varieties:

Lactose-free: This milk has a reduced amount of lactose (the sugar found in milk) for those who are allergic.

Low-Sodium milk: Milk has a naturally high volume of sodium. This milk is for those who are on sodium-restricted diets.

Dry milk: Powdered milk (skim, whole or buttermilk) can be mixed with water to drink or use in recipes. It doesn’t taste quite like fresh milk, though.


Buttermilk came into use as a byproduct of the butter-churning process: Rather than waste the residual liquid, people began to use it in baked goods, soups, dressings and sauces.

Nowadays, buttermilk is made by adding bacteria to milk (often skim milk) to give it a thicker texture and a tangy, yogurt-like flavor. Despite its rich-sounding name, buttermilk is actually lower in calories and fat than regular milk.

In recipes, it can often be substituted in equal proportions for plain yogurt (and vice versa). It can also be used in startcooking.com’s Avocado Soup. Occasional users of buttermilk may want to buy it in powdered form rather than fresh — that way you won’t end up wasting most of the carton when you only needed a cup.

Evaporated Milk (unsweetened condensed milk)

This is canned milk that has had about 6o per cent of the water removed. Because has a long shelf life, it became popular as a milk substitute before refrigeration. These days, it’s mostly used to add creaminess to desserts. If it’s mixed with an equal proportion of water, it can be used to substitute milk.

Evaporated milk is available in whole, low-fat and skim versions. It can also be used to add creaminess to sauces and soups. In Holland, evaporated milk is widely used as a coffee creamer. We use is here at startcooking.com to make Stove-Top Mac and Cheese.

Evaporated milk is not to be confused with sweetened condensed milk (see below), which comes in similar cans.

Evaporated Milk and Sweetened Condensed Milk

Sweetened condensed milk

This sticky, sweet canned concoction is made with a mix of whole milk and sugar. It’s made by heating the milk and sugar together, which causes the water to evaporate. It’s used mainly in pie fillings (Key Lime Pie, for example), cakes and other desserts. In some countries – particulary Vietnam – sweetened condensed milk is used to flavor coffee.

Startcooking.com uses sweetened condensed milk for Chocolate Fudge, Holiday Cookies, and Pumpkin Pie for Beginners.


Soy Milk

Often sold next to cow’s milk in North American grocery stores, soy milk is made from pressed soy beans and water. It has a slight bean taste. Soy milk is the basis of tofu, and is used widely in Asia for both drinking and cooking. It has a similar nutritional breakdown to cow’s milk, but is typically fortified with calcium. It provides an alternative for anyone with lactose or casein (milk protein) allergies. Soy milk comes in 2 per cent fat, and lower fat varieties, natural, sweetened and flavored.

Coconut Milk

This one does NOT come from a cow. Coconut “milk” is actually the liquid produced from squeezing grated coconut meat, not the liquid that’s sitting inside the coconut. Coconut milk is often used in Thai or Asian curries and soups, as well as sweets and desserts.

Sold in cans, coconut milk has about 17 per cent fat content. It is available in lower-fat versions,

Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is produced in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms.

Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form.[1] Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.

Hundreds of types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal’s diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is normally formed from adding annatto.

For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family.

Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep may depend on the type of cheese; labels on packets of cheese often claim that a cheese should be consumed within three to five days of opening. Generally speaking, hard cheeses last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat’s milk cheese. Cheese makers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. Additional ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black peppers, garlic, chives or cranberries.

A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheese monger. To become an expert in this field, like wine or cooking, requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience. This position is typically responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory; selecting the cheese menu, purchasing, receiving, storage, and ripening.
















Catering systems are complex sociotechnical organizations involving both people and machinery in the production and service of food. Such systems have the key purpose of transforming a diverse combination of ‘inputs’ into desired ‘outputs.’ Systems need to maximize their interdependence with the environment within which they exist. The objective for the management of any system is to find ways of ensuring its long-term survival and growth, often by seeking gains in efficiency and effectiveness in producing its outputs. Different types of catering systems have evolved in recent years as a result of efforts to achieve these goals. These developments have brought with them further technological challenges related to the provision of safe, nutritious, quality food products.



































It has been noted that the ‘systems’ approach to management involves viewing organizations ‘holistically’ in order to gain a better insight into these complex situations, rather than merely focusing on individual parts or problems. Systems theory has been applied to a wide range of organizational contexts and has proven valuable in solving problems particularly where the situation is unpredictable and issues causing concern are ill defined or vague. It has been suggested that ‘systems’ terminology was first applied to food production and service operations during the 1950s. The terms ‘catering systems,’ in common use in the UK, and ‘food service system,’ more frequently used in the USA, can be said to have been coined as a result of the ‘systems approach’ being applied to those operations that undertook the production of food and its service to consumers.

A simple definition of the term ‘catering system’ that has been proposed is that it refers to ‘a particular method of organizing the production and service of food.’ It is contended that the application of a systems approach involves defining and describing food production and service operations using ‘systems concepts.’ This enables the component parts, or subsystems, of an operation to be identified and the efficiency of their interaction assessed. Undertaking such a ‘systems analysis’ facilitates the application of ‘problem-solving’ methodologies, which can generate design solutions for the optimization of system performance. Utilization of these techniques, and awareness of the nature of organizations as being complex groups of ‘subsystems’ that need to be monitored and modified according to how efficiently they fulfil their specified objectives, can hence be referred to as ‘systems management.’

Catering systems may be described as systems that have objectives relating to the production and/or service of food products to specified groups of consumers. Such systems normally receive a combination of inputs, which include:

  1. Fully, part, or unprocessed food items;
  2. Adequate numbers of appropriately skilled people;
  3. Sufficient equipment and machinery;
  4. Any necessary financing.

The inputs form the components of a complex set of ‘subsystems’ that act to produce outputs required by the environment within which the system exists. The activity of the subsystems must be ‘managed’ effectively to ensure that they exhibit unity of purpose and exploit potential synergies within the system. The broad aim of any system is to fulfill demand for its outputs with maximum efficiency on a continuous basis. Through effective management that takes account of feedback from the market and environment, and also of ‘feed-forward’ from the manager’s knowledge and experience of similar operations, the system’s continued existence and growth are ensured.

Different views have been put forward by management and systems theorists over the years about the most important focus for managers of sociotechnical systems. In essence, these contentions may be summarized as follows:

The long-term survival of a system will depend on how well it ‘interacts’ with its environment, that is to say, how efficiently it acquires appropriate inputs and how ideally the output it produces match the current and potential demands of the environment. The efficiency with which a system works, and therefore thrives, will depend on ensuring that its subsystems work harmoniously towards common goals that contribute to, and are congruent with, the objective/s of the organization. Catering systems, therefore, have been defined either in terms of the markets that they serve, that is against the context of their environment, or in terms of the differentiation in their internal processes or subsystems. There follows a brief summary of the classifications that can be applied to catering systems in relation to these perspectives.


Catering organizations, as with all ‘systems,’ interact with their environment. In an ideal world, a catering system will produce the exact outputs the ‘environment’ demands in terms of both quantitative and qualitative requirements. A key task in managing such systems involves matching systems output to the requirements of the environment in such a way as to maximize the systems potential to do work. Thus, catering systems have typically been classified in terms of the sector of the environment they serve. The two major sectors into which catering systems are divided are the ‘Cost Sector,’ which, broadly speaking, incorporates all not-for-profit catering activities, and the ‘Profit Sector,’ which includes all profit-orientated organizations.

The ‘Cost Sector’ typically includes all catering systems in the following subsectors:

  1.  Healthcare, e.g., hospitals;
  2.  Education, e.g., schools and colleges;
  3.  Business and Industry, e.g., staff-feeding operations;
  4.  Public Services, e.g., the police and armed services.

In 1996, the value of purchases (which equate with sales) in this sector, in the UK, was almost £1.5 billion, ‘Healthcare’, ‘Education,’ and ‘Business and Industry’ sectors each having similar values of £460–475 million. The ‘Profit Sector’ includes catering systems in the subsectors listed below:

  1. Hotels;
  2. Restaurants;
  3. Fast Food;
  4. Cafes and Takeaways;
  5. Public Houses;
  6. Travel Organizations (e.g., on-board and in-flight catering);
  7. Leisure Operations.

In 1996, the value of purchases in the profit sector was over £6 billion, and sales were in excess of £18 billion. The Hotel sector alone accounted for £4.7 billion sales, with Public Houses being the second largest subsector having sales just less than £4 billion. These figures serve to confirm the economic importance of catering systems to the UK economy, which reflects a global pattern in the developed world.


Catering Systems Defined by Their Sub systemic Differentiation


Catering systems may be defined in terms of the differences in the subsystems they contain. Subsystems can be defined in many ways, depending on the analysis being undertaken. In the example of ‘process subsystems’ alone, the possible permutations that can be identified mean that there are potentially innumerable variations in operational systems. Attempts have been made to resolve these variations into viable ‘generic’ groups. There are essentially three major classifications of catering systems into which the minor ‘generic’ variations may all be fitted. These can be summarized as follows:

‘Cook–serve’/Integratedfood-servicesystems, where both the preparation of food and its service are an integral function carried out in a single operation, and there is little delay between preparation and food service. The majority of the catering industry still operates conventional systems of this kind. Food-manufacturing systems, where the production of food and meals is separated or ‘decoupled’ from the service of meals. Such systems encompass the use of chilling and freezing methods to preserve the food and in the past have been referred to as ‘technological catering systems.’ Meals-assembly/food-delivery systems, a recent systems development, in which little or no actual food preparation takes place in the system and the operation focuses on the assembly, regeneration, and service of meal.




The cook–serve or integrated catering system represents the conventional approach to catering. These systems operate over a short time scale with the minimum feasible period or ‘time buffer’ between cooking and food service. Where food is cooked to order, or produced in small batches to suit expected demand, it is quite easy to minimize the ‘time buffer,’ but this can be more difficult where food is made in bulk quantities for large numbers such as in institutional food services. The period, over which food is held hot, which, according to UK legislation, must be at a temperature above 63 oC, is largely dictated by the logistics of serving individual customers in each situation.

In cook–serve systems, should food need to be held hot for any appreciable period, time- and temperature- dependent changes occur that reduce both the sensory and nutritional properties of food. Adverse sensory changes can affect the color, texture, and flavor of foods. Losses in heat-labile vitamins such as thiamin and vitamin C also occur. In research, the loss of vitamin C (as measured using the ‘Fluorimetric method’) has frequently been used as an indicator of food quality, as its destruction is time- and temperature-dependent and is accompanied by losses in sensory qualities.

Extended cooking times and hot holding period cause substantial losses not only in cook–serve systems but also in the other systems discussed. It can be imputed that cook–serve systems in many areas of catering have their limitations. This is particularly the case in large-scale institutional catering such as in the healthcare sector. Large hospital food service operations formerly using traditional cook–serve methods and experiencing associated quality problems owing to extended hot holding before service have been at the forefront of the change to food-manufacturing and delivery systems.




Food-manufacturing systems avoid prolonged hot holding of foods as they incorporate a substantial ‘time buffer’ between cooking and food service. This is achieved by chilling or freezing the prepared meals followed by appropriate storage. In this case, a ‘time buffer’ is effectively used to ‘decouple’ the production subsystems of the operation from food assembly and service.

In food-manufacturing systems, food items are prepared in quantity in a large kitchen or centralized production unit, then chilled or frozen usually in multiportion packs, in effect preserving food until required. Products can be regenerated in the required amounts in a satellite kitchen, or using specialized reheating equipment close to the point of service (e.g., in large institutional operations) or within individual units (e.g., in an aeroplane’s galley kitchen in in-flight catering). This approach minimizes the time food is actually hot-held as it should take only the time required to serve food to customers immediately after regeneration, which will minimize potential deterioration.




Food-delivery systems take the concept of ‘decoupling’ to a logical conclusion in that the manufacturing subsystems are completely removed. Food products are ‘bought in’ from specialist manufacturers producing frozen menu items for assembly and regeneration in simple kitchens consisting essentially of reheating equipment, or close to the consumer using specially designed heated trolleys. These catering systems, which do not require the traditional kitchen, may be referred to more aptly as ‘meals assembly systems’ as they only consist of the storage, assembly, regeneration, and service subsystems.

The length of the ‘time buffer’ in these systems is determined by the preservation technique used, being up to 5 days for standard chilled foods and a year for frozen foods. Thus, the time buffer decouples production from service and potentially preserves food quality. This potential can be lost if the food is subjected to another period of hot holding after regeneration. UK guidelines recommend that it should take no longer than 15 min for meals to be served after regeneration is complete. Whilst the food-manufacturing approach aims to improve efficiency by decoupling the major subsystems, ‘meals assembly’ actually simplifies a catering system by removing the preparation and cooking subsystems completely. This allows the caterer to focus on food service and the monitoring of food safety and quality.


Preservation Methods in Food-manufacturing and Meals-assembly Catering Systems



Freezing is a reliable method of preservation as it includes the barrier of the latent heat plateau seen in any time/temperature graph during the thawing of frozen food. This phase change provides a safety factor against temperature abuse, although any partially thawed foods at the surface could potentially cause food-safety and sensory problems. A variation of this is the cook–freeze–thaw system introduced because, once thawed, the food can be treated as for cook–chill. However, the system can be potentially hazardous unless the temperatures are tightly controlled.



Cook–chill systems have gained acceptance through consumer preference for minimally processed foods. These are, however, more susceptible to temperature abuse in only having a small barrier to temperature change. Precise temperature control is necessary throughout the whole system.


Sous Vide

Sous vide is a specialist form of cook–chill system in which product shelf-life is extended from the normal 5 days up to as long as 42 days. Sous vide cooking is semi continuous when operated on a large scale but discontinuous in smaller operations. There are particular concerns that all systems employing this method must have appropriate technical expertise to ensure that all the processing equipment and operating procedures are adequately designed so that products receive sufficient heat treatment.

Questions about food safety and quality in sous vide operations have been raised. Food is cooked in sealed plastic bags under a partial vacuum, which slows the rate of heat transfer and could result in underprocessing. This has led to concerns that psychrotrophic pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium botulinum, and the like could survive. The most hazardous of these is Clostridium botulinum, some strains of which produce a toxin at temperatures as low as 3.3 degrees C. Although the vegetative cells of Clostridium botulinum are destroyed by heat treatment of not less than 70 degrees C for 2 min at the coldest spot, foods should be heated to 90 degrees C for 10 min to ensure destruction of spores.

Concerns about the safety of vacuum-packaged and modified atmosphere-packaged products have led the Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food in the UK to issue a Code of Practice that recommends the use of additional hurdles and the application of the HACCP technique in the manufacture of all such products. The retention of most of the original juices within the package after cooking has led to claims that sous vide processed foods have enhanced sensory qualities. This claim has not been fully supported by research findings to date.


Further Developments in Cook–Chill

As there is doubt that chilled storage alone can assure the safety of sous vide products, recent work has focused on the formulation of products with additional hurdles. This involves the combination of several factors together, which collectively ensure the microbial safety of food, even though each hurdle on its own might be insufficient to maintain safe food. Examples of hurdles are low water activity, low pH, use of modified atmospheres, irradiation, added organic acids and protective cultures. The incorporation of such adjuncts provides hurdles to microbial growth and can also impact positively on safety, nutritional, and sensory aspects. Research indicates that cook–chill produces a product that is inferior in sensory qualities to that produced in cook–serve systems in ideal conditions, but better than that produced in the no ideal or abused situations often found in catering systems.


Meals-Assembly Techniques


In this type of system, menu items are prepared and processed by food manufacturers to a specification prepared by a caterer. Typically, these menu items will include main courses, vegetables, and puddings, plus accompaniments such as sauces. The meals are chilled or frozen, and packaged in bulk foil containers suitable for use in commercial catering operations. After delivery to the catering unit, food is stored appropriately until requisitioned. Meals are then assembled, regenerated usually using forced-air convection ovens, and served. Meals assembly represents a radical change in catering systems. By the year 2000, such systems were being used by almost a fifth of UK NHS hospitals as well being more widely adopted within the profit sector, particularly by pub and fast-food operations.

This type of system has proven popular in healthcare catering, because it offers cost savings by reducing the need for skilled labor and expensive plant and equipment. The meals-assembly system allows the catering manager to concentrate on food-service techniques and monitoring methods, in particular to control time and temperature factors. A quality-management approach is essential for both the manager’s own operation and for their suppliers, the food manufacturers. The final quality of food produced using these new systems are governed by the control of time–temperature parameters throughout the system. Potentially, regeneration is the stage that can affect food quality most adversely, as primary cooking is common to all.



In a meals-assembly system, regeneration usually involves a standard reheat cycle in which a mixed load of chilled or frozen meals is regenerated in a specially designed oven. This means that food can be under- or over-heated as different foods have different thermal characteristics. Owing to food-safety concerns food, is often effectively overheated, with core food temperatures at the end of regeneration in excess of 80oC being usual. The time spent at this temperature level is particularly detrimental to food quality, causing both heat-labile vitamin losses and sensory losses. There is often potential to reduce the severity of the regeneration process whilst still maintaining safety, yet preserving sensory and nutritional quality, but reliable control and monitoring methods are vital.

Various types of equipment can be used for regenerating assembled meals, the most common currently being forced-air convection ovens. Forced-air convection technology gives a fast regeneration time owing to constant air velocity and even temperature distribution. Hot-air convection currents being forced to circulate the oven cavity by a fan achieve this. These currents remove the steam layer from the surface of the food quickly and enable heat to reach the food directly, thus causing a rapid rise in temperature. The heating effect can be enhanced further by the incorporation of steam injection into the oven cavity. The latent heating effect of condensing steam on the surface of the food package promotes faster reheating.

The use of microwaves in regeneration is less common but can be successfully combined with forced-air convection technology. Microwaves alone are better for reheating chilled, rather than frozen, foods because of the different absorbency of microwaves by ice and water, which can cause thermal runaway, and leading to hot spots and cold spots in the product. This can still occur in chilled products because of different dielectric properties in foods of varying compositions. The newer systems of food manufacture and food delivery require strict control throughout heat processing to ensure food safety and maintain consistent quality. New approaches to equipment design include the application of computational fluid dynamics and the use of model-based control design.





Temperature control in catering systems is imperative, and monitoring systems have consequently been developed in recent years. Larger units can have computer-controlled temperature-monitoring devices, whereas smaller operators generally rely on making manual checks and keeping manual records. Failure to control time and temperature remains a problem responsible for the majority of food poisoning cases caused by the catering industry. In the UK, there is a mandatory requirement for caterers to identify the steps in the system where hazards can arise and put appropriate control and monitoring measures in place. This relates to the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) techniques. Caterers are encouraged to develop modified HACCP approaches based on the Assured Safe Catering methods, but this is expected to be a slow process that will take place over several years.

There is a need to address the safety of individual foods as caterers continue to cause outbreaks of food poisoning owing to the use of contaminated fresh shell eggs. The UK Government has recommended that caterers should make use of heat-treated egg products, pasteurized to eliminate Salmonella enteritidis. Systems used in the catering industry can be seen as a continuum of the techniques used in the food manufacturing industry and therefore can employ similar methods of control. For example, the concept of quality management can be usefully applied. As more food-manufacturing techniques are adopted, and encouraged by regulatory authorities, these techniques should accompany the HACCP approach so that safety and quality issues are both addressed.




There is a need for further research to confirm claims of improved sensory qualities, safety, and nutritional values in food manufacturing and meals assembly systems. Quality changes can occur rapidly, but many variables affect the end result that is often product-specific. The lack of control and standardization in both the catering industry and experimental methods makes comparisons between studies difficult. The fact that technological innovations in catering systems have not introduced new methods of food production but rather, as some have noted, introduced systems of food preservation has not been proven to have had a positive impact on food quality predicted, as a matter of course.

Generally cook–serve catering systems still predominate throughout the food-service industry. It has been found that increased size, certainly in the healthcare sector, tends to dictate whether or not food-manufacturing systems have been adopted. However, recent surveys have indicated that around three-quarters of hospitals in the USA and almost the same proportion in the UK still operate conventional food-service systems.


In recent years, the emergence of food-delivery/meals-assembly systems has offered the opportunity for many smaller catering operations to adopt this type of system. Whilst this development means that catering systems can provide a wider menu with less skilled staff and reduced equipment needs, it has been observed that quality suffers if regeneration of products is poorly controlled and if the aesthetics of meals assembly and customer service expectations are overlooked. It is pertinent to recall that the term ‘catering system’ emerged from the application of systems theory to the management of food-service operations. It should not be forgotten, therefore, that the systems approach is ‘holistic,’ and that any innovation that affects one or more subsystems will also affect the rest of the system, its inputs, and the efficiency and effectiveness with which it produces its outputs.






An airline meal or in-flight meal is a meal served to passengers on board a commercial airliner. These meals are prepared by airline catering services.

The first kitchens preparing meals in-flight were established by United Airlines in 1936.These meals vary widely in quality and quantity across different airline companies and classes of travel. They range from a simple beverage in short-haul economy class to a seven-course gourmet meal in long-haul first class.

The type of food varies depending upon the airline company and class of travel. Meals may be served on one tray or in multiple courses with no tray and with a tablecloth, metal cutlery, and glassware (generally in first and business classes).

The airline dinner typically includes meat (most commonly chicken or beef) or fish, a salad or vegetable, a small bread roll, and a dessert.

Caterers usually produce alternative meals for passengers with restrictive diets. These must usually be ordered in advance, sometimes when buying the ticket. Some of the more common examples include:

Condiments (typically salt, pepper, and sugar) are supplied in small sachets. For cleanliness most meals come with a napkin and a moist towelette. First and business class passengers are often provided with hot towels and actual salt and pepper shakers.


During morning flights a cooked breakfast or smaller continental-style may be served. On long haul flights and (short/medium haul flights within Asia) breakfast normally includes an entrée of pancakes or eggs, traditional fried breakfast foods such as sausages and grilled tomatoes, and often muffins or pastry, fruits and breakfast cereal on the side. On shorter flights a continental-style breakfast, generally including a miniature box of breakfast cereal, fruits and either a muffin, pastry, or bagel. Coffee and tea are offered as well, and sometimes hot chocolate.

Food on board the flight ranges in price from free (typically on full-service European and Asian airlines, and on almost all long distance flights) to as much as ten dollars on low-cost airlines. Quality may also fluctuate due to shifts in the economics of the airline industry, with private jet passengers receiving the equivalent of five-star food service.

On the longest flights in first class and business class, most Asian and European airlines serve multicourse gourmet meals, while airlines based in the US tend to serve large, hearty, meals including a salad, steak or chicken, potatoes, and ice cream. Some long-haul flights in first and business class offer such delicacies as caviar, champagne, and sorbet. The cost and availability of meals on US airlines has changed considerably in recent years, as financial pressures have inspired some airlines to either begin charging for meals or abandon them altogether in favor of small snacks (Southwest Airlines). Eliminating free pretzels saved Northwest $2 million annually. The carrier lost nearly $3.3 billion since 2001. Air China has reported that each domestic flight’s meal requires RMB50 (US$7.3) while international flights require RMB70 (US$10).[5] However, this figure varies from airline to airline, as some have reported costs to be as low as US$3.5.[6] Air China is also minimizing costs by loading only 95% of all meals to reduce leftovers and storing non-perishable foods for emergencies.


Meals must generally be frozen and heated on the ground before takeoff, rather than prepared fresh. Guillaume de Syon, a history professor at Albright College who wrote about the history of airline meals, said that the higher altitudes alter the taste of the food and the function of the taste buds; according to de Syon the food may taste “dry and flavorless” as a result of the pressurization and passengers, feeling thirsty due to pressurization, many drink alcohol when they ought to drink water.


Food safety is paramount in the airline catering industry. A case of mass food poisoning amongst the passengers on an airliner could have disastrous consequences. For example, on February 20, 1992, shrimp tainted with cholera was served on airlines Argentines’ Flight 386. An elderly passenger died and other passengers fell ill. For this reason catering firms and airlines have worked together to provide a set of industry guidelines specific to the needs of airline catering. The World Food Safety Guidelines for Airline Catering Revision 3 is offered free of charge by the International Flight Service Association.



Resources are needed for the selection, purchase and storage of food. A caterer must consider the best use of these resources to produce the best results. This unit will expose you to the many resources that you require for efficient selection, purchase and storage of food in your establishment. It will also expose you to the many techniques you need in the market place and the various ways in which you can store your equipment and food to avoid waste. It will also show you how to deal with advertisements to get the best results.

Selection or choice of food is very important in meal management. Providing food in a manner which is satisfactory to many people can be a complicated issue. Many decisions are required and careful thought and planning is important.




The types of food you select depend on:

  • the money you have
  • your nutritional needs and
  • the effect of advertisements

Factors influencing selection;

The money you have

The more money you have the more foods you can buy and the greater your choice. People who have a lot of money can afford a variety of meals and can eat away from home. People with small incomes have a limited choice and it becomes a hard task to buy enough food to meet family needs.

If you have a limited food budget, you can save money by buying foods that in season and buying cheaper cuts of meat as well as comparing prices in different shops.

Likes and dislikes

You eat to keep alive and healthy. At the same time most people also eat to enjoy the food. People tend to eat foods they like and avoid those they dislike.

Is there any food you dislike? Why do you dislike it? Is this food very nutritious?

Foods are normally disliked because:-

Of their color, flavor and texture They are new and have never been tried They do not look attractive The food is associated with some ill feeling The way it is cooked is not appealing

Food is enjoyed when it is liked. Food is enjoyed because it provides some sensations for you the aromas and flavors that come from food are detected by special nerves in the sense organs of taste and smell. Sight and temperature also have a great effect on the enjoyment of food. Cooking food often develops the flavor and changes the texture of food. Many foods are traditionally eaten hot or cold. If food is too hot or too cold it true flavor may be masked and it may be uncomfortable to eat.


Another great influence on food choice is advertisement. Advertisements have a way of persuading people to make choices. Food manufacturers and shops advertise their products through television, radio, magazines, newspapers, posters and leaflets.

Good adverts are decent, honest and truthful.

They do not mislead the public about a product.

They show a sense of responsibility to people.

They conform to fair competition behavior different manufacturers and businesses.

Nutritional needs

Your food choice will also depend on your need for food. Everyone has a biological need for food. It is essential for life without food one becomes weak and ill. People vary in the amount of food they need for reasons like health, age and activity.

Your choice of food will therefore depend on each of these factors. Your nutrition knowledge helps you to choose food that provides the necessary nutrients to meet your needs.


Food purchasing can be a boring or interesting adventure depending on one’s approach to it. To make food purchasing interesting you have to know much about the market place and ways in which you can make the most out of your food budget.

First of all you need to know the factors that determine the cost of the things you want to purchase. Production cost, the season, the market supply of the goods, the demand of the goods, Advertisements, Amount of processing

Factors affecting purchasing;

Production cost

This is the amount of money used to produce the item. In the case of food, the production cost will include the money spent on cleaning the land, sowing the seeds, harvesting and processing. The final cost of a product is determined by this amount plus others like transportation cost, profit and handling charges.

The season

Seasonal differences in the cost of food occur frequently in Ghana. Food items always cost less when they are in season because they are plenty and so the supply becomes high. When market supply of a commodity becomes high the price of the commodity falls. Food items that are out of season become scarce and therefore their prices are higher.

Demand for item

Usually when many people want a certain item, its price increases.


These are ways in which manufacturers and sellers tell us they have certain goods and services for sale. Advertisements cost money. The cost of advertising a product is added to the production cost to make up the price of a product. The more the advertisement the higher the cost of the product.

Amount of processing

Processing adds value to products and it costs money. Foods that are processed to provide conveniences cost more than unprocessed ones.

Factors that determine the amount of money we spend on food.

For most people food budget is one of the largest expenses. Careful planning and shopping can result in substantial savings. Normally if you are rich you tend to spend more money on food and if you are poor you spend less.

  1. Your skills personal preferences,
  2. Your values and your lifestyle will all determine your food selection and hence the money you spend buying food.
  3. The skill of bargaining for example would help you to buy goods at the cheapest possible cost.
  4. Buying foods in season and in bulk also helps to cut down cost.
  5. Buying food from farm gates instead of from retailers also cuts cost. When you buy food, buy them from places where prices are lower and where food sold is of good quality. Buy food from places that are clean and where food is well stored.


Foods are sold in many forms. The form you buy is determined by the storage facilities you have, how much convenience you need and what you want to use the food for. Foods are sold fresh, dried, frozen or canned.

Fresh foods

Fresh foods provide most nutrients since processing may destroy the nutrients. Fresh foods are natural and do not require fortification or processing. They therefore cost less. However, because they are fresh they spoil fast.


Frozen foods

Frozen foods are much nearer to fresh foods as far as nutrient content is concerned. Freezing prevents the action of enzymes and microorganisms. Microorganisms are minute organisms which we cannot see but which can be very harmful to us and can spoil our food. Frozen foods must be stored in the freezer in useable quantities. Remember that when you thaw a frozen food completely it must be used immediately to avoid spoilage. Thawed foods should not be refrozen.

Dried foods

Dried foods have their moisture removed. Some dried foods like milk powder, can be reconstituted by adding water. Dried foods do not require refrigeration. They are light in weight and take up les storage space.

Canned foods

Canned foods are convenient to use. They will not spoil as long as the can is not punched. Canned foods should be stored in cool dry places. They do not have the taste of freshly cooked foods. They are much more expensive than foods in other forms. They have long shelf life that is they last longer. Unless canned foods are fortified with nutrients they loose most of their nutrient content.


Tips for shopping

  • When buying food, choose the form that you can easily handle and which you can afford.
  • Make a shopping list so that you buy the things you need without wasting time.
  • Choose the type and location of market appropriate to your needs.
  • Compare prices and quality of commodity before you buy.
  • Buy foods in bulk if you have storage facilities and money. It is cheaper.
  • Do not shop when you are hungry; it makes you buy more than necessary.
  • Do not take children along when you go shopping; they make you buy unnecessary things.
  • Avoid impulse buying that is buying things you did not plan for.
  • When you buy canned or packaged foods look out for the expiry date or ‘use by’ date. It is the last day a product is considered fresh. A food may still be safe to eat after this date but the taste and nutrient quality may not be good.

Do not buy processed foods when the following signs are seen:-

  • Cans are bulging or dented because they may cause food poisoning
  • Rusty can may contain spoiled food
  • Frozen food packages that are soft or soggy may have thawed for a long time and May be spoiling
  • Refrozen foods, this can be detected as stained packages or crystallized products
  • Opened or damaged packages
  • Moldy or colored dried foods
  • Meat or fish that has dull or slimy surface

Some unscrupulous sellers buy products which have expired from the large shops and sell then in the open markets at prices that are cheaper. Check the expiration dates and shapes of such items before you buy them.

Points to bear in mind when purchasing some food commodities

Fruits and vegetables

High quality fruits and vegetables are the ones that are ripe, crisp, fine and free from bruises. Nutrients values of fruits and vegetables decrease over a period therefore you should try to buy those that are fresh. Vegetables will usually wither when kept in the sun or kept for too long.

Starchy roots and plantain

These foods form the staple food in many Ghanaian homes. They are relatively cheap but do not have good keeping quality. They can be used for a variety of food products. They are sold in fresh or dried and powdered forms. Examples of such foods are plantain cassava, yam, cocoyam, water yam, potato and taro. When purchasing these foods care must be taken so that only good quality foods are bought. Roots should be free from bruises since this would make them rot quickly. They must be firm to touch. Softness in roots is a sign of spoilage. They must not start sprouting. Ripped plantain should not have black spots on the skin.

Animal and animal products

Foods in this group are very expensive and they spoil very quickly. The most expensive animal foods are not necessarily the most nutritious. If you have limited resource you can still get good quality protein from cheap sources such as snails, crabs, sprats and anchovies. Bone in beef is just as nutritious as bone less beef. When buying animal foods, quality and safety are very important consideration. You can tell the quality of animal products as follows: – Meat should have a deep red color with white or creamy fat. Signs of poor quality are very dark brown or green color and yellow fat. When the meat is greenish and smells bad it is of poor quality and not safe for eating. Poultry should have a meaty body with meaty legs and breasts. The skin should not have any discoloration Fish should have firm flesh and shiny skin with a lot of tightly clinging scales. It must have bright and clear eyes and red shiny gills. Disagreeable color, flesh that leaves a dent when pressed and dries skin is signs of spoilage.

Before I leave this topic, let me add that tenderness of meat and poultry depend on the age of the animal and the part of animal bought. The nutritive value is, however, not affected by these.

  • Eggs

Eggs may have white or brown shells. The nutritive value is the same. Eggs can be bought fresh or dried.

When buying eggs, look for shells that are rough and not shiny. Test for freshness by putting it in a jar of salt water. When it floats the eggs is stale. Buy eggs that are clean and not cracked.

  • Milk

Milk is sold in liquid or powdered form. Your choice will depend on what you want to use it for and the storage facility you have. Milk can be bought fresh. Its keeping quality is not good especially outside the refrigerator. When milk tin is opened and used the remaining milk should be poured out of the tin and kept in the refrigerator or a cool dry place, well covered.

  • Legumes

Legumes include groundnuts, cowpeas and soya beans. Legumes are sold shelled or unshelled. They are sold dry or canned. When buying legumes you must buy the ones that are not infested with weevils. Also they must not be mouldy. It is better to make your own groundnut paste than to buy from the market. Often groundnut paste is adulterated before it is sold in the market.



  • Cereals

Cereals are normally sold in grains or in powdered form or as breakfast cereal.

When buying cereals avoid the ones that have weevils or have grown moulds. Mouldy cereals are not good for consumption. Make your own corn dough instead of buying from the market.


Food commodities that are purchased from the market must be stored well if they must keep their quality. As soon as you return from the market you need to group your item into the following categories.

  • Dry storage items
  • Frozen items
  • Fresh items

Food is stored mostly because we want to keep it safe and prolong its shelf life. There are three types of food storage. These are:-

  • Dry storage
  • Refrigerator storage
  • Freezer storage

Dry storage

Foods that need to be kept dry are usually stored in cabinets or store rooms. Cereals, canned foods packaged foods and other dry food items should be kept in cool dry and clean places in the kitchen. Food should not be stored above refrigerator or cooker or near any heat outlet. The temperatures of these areas are warm and favorable for the growth of microorganisms. Storage areas must be kept clean so, you should wipe spills as soon as they occur to avoid attracting insects.

Refrigerator storage

Refrigerator temperatures should be between O degrees C and 7degrees C. Temperatures in the refrigerator vary depending on the part of the refrigerator. The shelves on the door are not as cold as the inside. This area is good for storing eggs. The lower part of the refrigerator is also not very cold so vegetables can be stored there. Foods stored in the refrigerator must be covered well so that it would not dry out or absorb odors from other foods.

Freezer storage

The temperature of the freezer should be – 18 degrees C or below. Frozen foods their original packages in the freezer. Foods to be frozen should be wrapped in moisture and vapors proof wrapping and arranged properly in the freezer.

After shopping for food, store frozen foods immediately in the freezer, so that they will not thaw completely. After this you can store other foods that need refrigeration like eggs. Wash fresh vegetables before storing in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator. Store yams, potatoes and onions in a cool dry place.

If fruits are not fully ripe they should be kept at room temperature until they are ripe. Then they can be put in the refrigerator. Do not store bananas in the refrigerator because they darken and do not look attractive.

Canned and packaged foods should be placed in a cool and dry cupboard. When opened they must be refrigerated.



Food costs are probably one of the topics most discussed by Caterers and yet it is the one they usually understand the least. We all know we must control costs, but in order to control them we must also be able to measure them effectively. When faced with a food cost problem, many operators try the quick fix of raising prices to offset high costs or reducing prices to increase business volume. In reality this can be counter-productive and actually decrease sales and profit margins.  Knee jerk reactions are not appropriate for resolving these issues.



The reason we are in business is the bottom line, of course – making a profit. In order to do so, you must set up operational procedures that will allow you to know and control your food costs.



Ø  Standardize your Recipes


The first step is to establish standard recipes for all menu items, including specials. This will give you an accurate picture of what your cost on every item should be – your potential food cost. In fact, just the act of developing standard recipes will give you tremendous insight – you will know more about your operation than you ever did before!


A standard recipe should be developed for every item with more than two ingredients. It should detail all ingredients in the dish as well as a basic cooking and plating procedure. It will tell you if the item can be sold at a profit within your market position and what that profit should be.



Ø  Establish Purchase Specifications


The next step in controlling food costs is to establish purchase specifications. These will be determined by what’s on the menu, the standard recipe for each item, production or batch sizes, what’s available in the market and storage capacity. The purchase specification should detail the name of the product, the unit of purchase (pounds, litres, case, dozen, etc.), grade if applicable, appearance, temperature at delivery, type of packaging and any other information that will assist in evaluating the product once it is received.


The control of purchasing is critical to maintaining profitability. You must determine if stock holding is at the proper level. Large levels lead to increased spoilage, shrinkage due to pilfering and higher storage costs. That’s why it’s so important to establish a par stock level that is strictly followed.


Make sure suppliers have copies of the purchase specifications. If you regularly find yourself running low on certain items and sending staff out to purchase these items at retail, you know you’re incurring unnecessary costs. Purchase specifications will help alleviate this problem and allow you to take advantage of lower seasonal prices on a variety of products.


Seek competitive bids on high cost items. Finally, purchase these items in the smallest practical unit size.


A purchase specification should include all important aspects of the product being purchased. This way, your supplier will be certain of the product you are looking for and your receiver will know exactly what to expect.



Sample Purchase Specification


                 Purchase Specification
Dish Sirloin Steak Sandwich
Ingredient Sirloin Steak
Country of Origin United Kingdom
Weight 170g +/- 10g
Trim Min 8mm of fat to remain
Packed Individual vacuum / packed in 10’s
Specific Requirements Aged 21 days minimum
Delivery Temperature Below 5ºc
Minimum Order 10 individual
Maximum Order ex autho 30 individual



Ø  Standardize your Portions


Once you have implemented standard recipes and purchase specifications, the next important step is to standardize portion sizes. The portions should be large enough to satisfy customers without excessive waste. They must reflect the potential food cost and menu price.


Some helpful tips for easy portion control:


portion as much as possible ahead of service in the preparation area;

use individual dishes if possible;

provide appropriate portion control utensils;

Frequently spot check plating for proper portions.




Ø  Receipt and Storage


One very important component to food cost control that is often overlooked is the receiving of deliveries and goods. Are you receiving all the items you are paying for and do they adhere to your purchase specifications? Do you have a set of scales to check deliver weights?  Are they accurate? Are the prices charged the same as those quoted? Is receiving done in a controlled area? Who is doing spot checks of products received? Have they been trained how to do this?


Control of your storage area is critical to maintaining proper cost controls. All storage areas including walk-in stores/sheds should be locked at all times. Keep tabs on all keys. Make sure that the walk-in fridge temperatures are correct and that the thermometers are checked regularly. Track high cost items against sales constantly against sales. Ensure that all production items are code dated and rotated properly.





By using some of these tools, actual food cost should be in line with the potential food cost. If, however, a reduction in food cost is necessary and raising prices is not an option, you may want to consider some other course of action.


Review purchase specifications to identify and source alternative products that will not affect the quality of the finished menu item. Consider long-term purchase contracts on high cost or high volume items – or join a purchasing group. Look at portion sizes to see if there is any opportunity to reduce them without affecting customer satisfaction.

Another way of reducing costs is to focus on selling more of your higher GP / lower cost items to offset some of the higher cost / low GP items. Appetizers, soups and desserts tend to be lower in food cost and selling at least one of them, along with a main course dish, to each customer can go a long way towards improving profitability and reducing costs. What are you and your staff doing to promote these items? Look for any loss leaders on your menu and ask yourself if they are really working for you.








Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate and occupations, these cuisines vary significantly from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, meat, vegetables, and fruits. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religious and cultural choices.

The development of these cuisines has been shaped by Hindu and Jain beliefs, and in particular by vegetarianism, which is a growing dietary trend in Indian society. There has also been Persian influence on North Indian cuisine from the years of Mughal and Delhi Sultanate rule. Indian cuisine has been and is still evolving, as a result of the nation’s cultural interactions with other societies.

Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations and colonialism have also played a role in introducing certain foods to the country. For instance, potato, a staple of North Indian diet was brought to India by the Portuguese, who also introduced chillies and breadfruit. Indian cuisine has also shaped the history of international relations; the spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe’s Age of Discovery. Spices were bought from India and traded around Europe and Asia. It has also influenced other cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia, the British Isles and the Caribbean.



The history of the Buruuj Training Institute (BTI) dates back to July 2006, when its predecessor, the TJ Computer College, commenced training in Sotik Town, Bomet County. In 2008, TJ computer college relocated to Nairobi.


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